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SPECIAL QUIZ: BOOST YOUR MENTAL POWERS! 




APRIL 1992 



EXPLAINING 
THE COSMOS: 

THE RENEGADE 
MATHEMATICS 
OFKURTGODEL 
(DECEASED) 



CELEBRITY 
DNA 

AND THE 

AMAZING 

GENE MACHINES 



V 



I S3. 95 



788V 484" 



INCREASE YOUR 

INT! IITION« 

EXCLUSIVE EXERCISE/QUIZ INSIDE 



onnrui 



VOL. 14 NO. 7 



EDITOR IN CHIEF & DESIGN DIRECTOR: BOB GUCCIONE 

PRESIDENT & C.O.O.: KATHY KEETON 

EDITOR: KEITH FERRELL 
GRAPHICS DIRECTOR: FRANK DEVI NO 
MANAGING EDITOR: CAROLINE DARK 
ART DIRECTOR: DWAYNE FLINCHUM 



DEPARTMENTS 



First Word 

By Mary Catherine Bateson 

Choosing death 

11 

Forum 

By Keith Ferrell 

Really good SF books 

14 

Communications 

Readers' writes 

18 

Funds 

By Patric Helmaan 

Using a PC to manage 

your money — really 

20 

Wheels 

By Jeffrey Zygmont 

Praising the pickup 

24 

Political Science 

By Tom Dworetzky 

Why we need RU486 

27 

Space 

• By John Elder 

Students plan Mars voyage 

94 

Games 

By Scot Morris 

Fooling the eye 

96 

Electronic Universe 

By Gregg Keizer 

Playing sports on a PC 

98 

Last Word 

By Stan Sin berg 

A mild nuclear winter 




Intuition isn't just for women anymore; every- 
body's got it. Tapping into it is the 
hard part. Omni talked to people who've not 
only learned how, but use intuition to 
make a living. (Art and photo credits, page 84) 



Continuum 
40 

Portrait of a Prophet 

By Deidre Sullivan 

Soothsayers of the 21st 

century reveal 

corporate secrets — 

and more. 

46 

Intuition Quiz 

Find out how intuitive 

you are. 

53 

Life In Godel's Universe: 

Maps Al! the Way 

By George Zebrowski 

In 1931, G6del explained 

the universe — 

and no one noticed. 

64 

Fiction: 

Ship Full of Jews 

By Barry Malzberg 

Columbus, 

Torquemada, and a cargo 

of Chasidim 

head for America. 

69 

Interview 

By Anthony Liversidge 

Inventing polymerase 

chain reaction 
didn't make biochemist 

Kary Mullis 
rich. His newest gene- 
manipulating 
techniques just might. 
75 
Anti-Matter 



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You always come back to the basics: 



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FIRST IAJORD 



"DEATH— THE UNDISCOVER'D COUNTRY": 

What is needed to give death its' proper place in life? 

By Mary Catherine Bateson 



Batesan: Most 
of us today 
reject cultural tra- 
ditions that 
subordinate life to 
death: Death 
is not the goal. But 
neither is death 
always the enemy, 
the intruder. 



^^ ^^ usicians give careful 
I I thought to the ending 
I %J I of their compositions. 
Artists locate every brush stroke 
in relation to the edges of the can- 
vas. But those who attempt, 
through the many choices and 
transitions thai arise in the 
course of a life, to make of that 
life an aesthetic whole are only 
now beginning to claim the right 
of elective closure, the affirmation 
of completion. The current de- 
mand for Final Exit: The Practical- 
ities of Self-Deliverance and As- 
sisted Suicide for the Dying, by 
Derek Humphry (published by 
the Hemlock Society), which 
gives dosages of barbiturates 
and recipes for the proper use of 
plastic bags, is proof of need and 
anxiety, but more is needed in or- 
der to give death its proper 
place in life. 

Death no longer comes natu- 
rally. Just as we foresee a socie- 
ty in which every birth is chosen 
and brings forth a wanted child, 
so we can foresee a society in 
which death comes in chosen 
ways and seasons, freeing ener- 
gies for living. If you look around 
at clear skin and straight teeth, at 
parents who have not had to 
face the death of children, at en- 
ergetic elders working and play- 




ing to average ages never before 
known, you recognize that what 
we call health and regard as nat- 
ural is in fact an artifact of culture, 
an extension of human choice 
based on increasing knowledge. 
This is the human pattern, and 
the time has come to decide how 
to bring death within that pattern 
along with the amelioration and ex- 
tension of life. 

A new affirmation of death im- 
plies ethical and policy changes. 
The medical system is unlikely to 
shift to supporting health and qual- 
ity of life as long as if remains 
locked in a heroic battle against 
death. The life that physicians 
struggle to sustain needs to be 
aware, participative, fully human, 
with death as one of its significant 
moments. There is a direct con- 
nection between the pattern of 
medical care that all too often pro- 
longs unwanted life, the definition 
of death as medical failure, and 
the rising tide of litigation. 

Current attitudes toward 
death contribute to an increasing 
dissonance between genera- 
tions. Traditionally, a full life was 
one in which parents both expect- 
ed the care and support of their 
children and enjoyed contemplat- 
ing what they were handing on to 
them. It is important that a parent 
be able to say to a child, "Some- 
day this will be yours." It is also 
important that the labors and ex- 
pense we dedicate to caretaking 
contribute meaningfully to a par- 
ent's welfare. It is one thing to sup- 
port the decision to go on living, 
even with pain and discomfort 
and dependency, as long as 
that choice can knowingly be tak- 
en. Those are costs we must 
find ways to meet. But the propor- 
tion of medical costs devoted to 
futile and expensive interventions 
on those already dying or no long- 
er conscious is inappropriate. 

Cross-generational tension oc- 
curs, not only within individual 



families, but in society at large, 
which supports heroic medical 
interventions for the very old at 
the expense of investments in the 
future: prenatal care, education, 
expanded industrial capacity, 
and jobs. Generations compete 
for resources, social security 
moves toward crisis, and many of 
the elderly feel betrayed by chil- 
dren unwilling to take on their 
care. The covenant between 
young. and old, which is under 
threat today, must be premised 
on sustained quality of life for 
both generations, and a due ac- 
ceptance of death that includes 
the expectation of full information, 
discussion, and planning. 

This dissonance between the 
generations is intimately connect- 
ed with the need for value chang- 
es that will allow the moderation 
of consumption and population 
growth so as to conserve the in- 
tegrity of an already threadbare 
biosphere. A familiar slogan as- 
serts that we do not inherit the 
world from our parents, but bor- 
row it from our children. It is in- 
teresting that in many traditional 
societies, where death comes ear- 
lier and is more intimately expe- 
rienced by families, trees are plant- 
ed and terraces and irrigation sys- 
tems maintained over centuries. 
An awareness of approaching 
death does not seem to inhibit car- 
ing and careful thought about the 
future nearly as much as the de- 
termination to deny the necessi- 
ty of death. In rejecting death, we 
set our face against nature. 

Having interfered with the proc- 
ess by removing many of the nat- 
ural causes of death, we should 
accept the fact that the cost and 
glory of technical progress is to 
require choice: choice of how 
much and when to reproduce, 
choice "of how to die. Claiming 
this possibility of choice gives, 
one more way to shape lives of 
grace and affirmation. DO 



^*Mmi 



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READ ANY GOOD SCIENCE BOOKS LATELY? 

Here are more good books about science and all of its flavors. 

By Keith Ferrell 



Science literacy, we hear 
daily, is on the decline. 
Ironically, the literature of 
science is on the upswing. 

We are living in a golden age 
of science writing, exemplified on 
the world's coffee tables and news- 
stands by Omni, and in our book- 
stores and libraries'by a veritable 
flood of well-researched, careful- 
ly and beautifully written, ambi- 
tious books about the process of 
science, the history of science, 
the people who are doing science 
around the world. Beginning with 
Carl Sagan's Cosmos a decade 
or so ago, followed by the recent 
stunning success of Stephen 
Hawking's >4 Brief H/sfory of 77me 
(Bantam), the number and quali- 
ty of good science books has in- 
creased every year. The 1990s 
may well produce more good sci- 
ence books than all the years be- 
fore them. 

The books are getting attention. 
Occasional Omni contributor Den- 
nis Overbye last year published 
Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos 
(Harper-Collins), and has been re- 
warded no! only with ample 
sales, but also with the first of 
what will likely be many nomina- 
tions for major literary awards. 
Overbye's book tells the story of 
modern cosmology through the 
eyes and experiences of Allan 
Sandage, a true pioneer of the dis- 
cipline. It's a moving, at times heart- 
breaking, story of the excitements 
and frustrations of breaking new" 
scientific ground, pursuing large 
if not ultimate questions, and do- 
ing so in the midst of sometimes 
acrimonious political maneuver- 
ings and machinations. In other 
words, it's a very human book 
about real people, fully realized 
on the page. Lonely Hearts is a 
marvel, and a marvelous example 
of book-length science writing at 
its best. 

Another Omni regular, Arthur 
C. Clarke happens not only tobe 



one of the world's truly great sci- 
ence-fiction writers, he's also one 
of the most insightful write/s 
about the nature and consequenc- 
es of our Information Age and the 
part telecommunications plays in 
creating and shaping modern 
times. From his Sri Lankan van- 
tage point, Clarke has this year tak- 
en off enough time from fiction — 
and articles such as "Squid!" 
which appeared here in January — 
to assemble the best of his tele- 
communications writings, along 
with a fair amount of new prose, 
into a book called How the World 
Was One (Bantam), due out in ear- 
ly summer. As always, Clarke is 
clear and optimistic, a champion 
of the triumph of idea over igno- 
rance. In this book, perhaps 
more clearly than ever before, 
Clarke presents his vision of the 
partnership between humans and 
their technologies, and the world 




of peaceful plenty that partnership, 
properly managed, can create. 

A few years ago, Timothy Ferris 
published Coming of Age in the 
Milky Way, a thoughtful history of 
science's relation to and under- 
standing of the cosmos. His new 
book. The Mind's Sky (Bantam), 
inverts that relation, showing how 
our brains and thought processes 
are themselves reflective of the 
workings of the universe.- The 
book is witty as well as profound 
and, like everything Professor Fer- 
ris writes, its grace is a match for 
anyone writing nonfiction prose. 

Some scientists make fine his- 
torians. Certainly that's true of 
Isaac Asimov, but than Asimov 
has proved himself capable of han- 
dling virtually any literary chal- 
lenge he sets himself — and he's 
set himself plenty of challenges. 
Now he's taken on the entire his- 
tory of the world in Asimov's 
Chronology of the Hfcr/d (Harper- 
Collins). Asimov's approach is 
that of the chronologer, the mak- 
er of time lines. He weaves dis- 
parate strands of world history to- 
gether all but effortlessly, show- 
ing the relationship of science and 
technology to the progress of civ- 
ilization, the rise and fall of indi- 
vidual nations. His time line is 
enormous, beginning" at the Big 
Bang. A shrewd interpreter as 
well as storyteller. Asimov cuts off 
his time line in 1945, at the mo- 
ment when science delivered the 
destructive power of the atom in- 
to human hands. That moment, he 
argues, changed the nature of his- 
tory forever. 

And this is just a handful 

of recent titles, reflecting my 
own tastes and preferences. 
Stop by a bookstore or library and 
scan the shelves for yourself. I 
guarantee you'll find something 
thai captures your imagination, in- 
trigues your curiosity, piques 
your desire to learn. That's what 
' science writing does. DO 



The joys of 
reading about 

match those of 
reading even 
the most exciting 
novels. 



■ 



connnnufuiCATiorus 

READERS' WRITES: 

Disposing of Waste — natural and nuclear, saluting the 

Soviets, and interpreting the stars 



How Now 

Ben Barber (Earth ; January) raved 
about the gensle cow est ng the banana 
leaf that had held his rice in Madras. 
He didn't mention anything about the in- 
convenient scatology of hundreds of 
cows wandering around leaving aromat- 
ic deposits. Sure it's natural, but so 
is cholera. Appropriate technology 
sounds nice. But the practice of using 
the runoff from pigpens to manure 
food crops in China has contributed to- 
the spread of swine flu worldwide. The 
"appropriate" technology of slash farm- 
ing in the Brazilian rain forest is mess- 
ing up the planet. I say let's have more 
real technology which leads to more 
being accomplished with less: less 
energy, less raw material, less time, 
less waste. 

Michael L. Clark 
Olynipia, WA 

Space Will Never Be the Same 
Regarding the problems with the Sovi- 
et space program (Space, January 
1992, November 1991), a small part of 

me is chauvinistic enough to want to 
see the United States win any space 
race. However, a larger part of me is 
sorry to see the Soviets drop out of the 
race. We may be happy to see the 
death of "Godless communism" but the 
Soviets have been worthy opponents 
and they have done a great deal of out- 
standing space exploration, I for one 
will hate to see them grounded. 

Dusten Galbraith 
Silvis, IL 

House of Incensed 

Why is the science of astrology so threat- 
enlng to the'other sciences? In "51 
Things You Must Know About Science" 
(January 1992), item 4 states that "As- 
trology is not, and never has been, a 
science." Meteorology is subject to the 
free will of Mother Nature and psychol- 
ogy to the free will of human nature. 
These two sciences rely on the law of 
probability, as does astrology, as it has 
its roots in the abstract principles of 
mathematics. A very learned man 
named Paul Brunton said, "What the 



first seer found and recorded thou- 
sands of years ago, the last seer finds 
and agrees with today. But what the 
first scieniist of the nineteenth century 
found and recorded, the last scientist 
of today laughs and flings away." 

Beverly Ramos 
Pittsburg, CA 

Continue 'Urn 

In response to the article "Putting Nu- 
clear Waste in Its Place." (Continuum, 
January), author George Nobbe is un- 
der the impression that the Carlsbad 
Caverns is a contender for a permanent 
storage site for nuclear waste. He 
should be informed that the Caverns is 
a national park and is protected by the 
iederal government. The city of 
Carlsbad relies on the Caverns as a ma- 
jor tourist attraction. Incorrect informa- 
tion about the area could damage its 
reputation, potentially reducing reve- 
nues as well as diminishing visitors to 
the "eighth wonder of the world." How- 
ever, the Waste Isolation Pilot Project 
(WIPP), which is located approximately 
50 miles northeast of the Carlsbad Cav- 
erns and operated by the Department 
of Energy (DOE), is a proposed storage 
site for nuclear waste. 

Crista J. Bock 
Nuclear Packaging, Inc. 

Carlsbad, NM 

Your January Continuum had two sto- 
ries on waste: one on radioactive 
waste, the other on ordinary trash. An 
interesting contrast is the amount of 
each we generate annually — almost 
1,300 pounds of trash per person ver- 
sus one pound of radioactive waste. 
This small amount of hot trash is amaz- 
ing considering that 20 percent of our 
electricity comes from nuclear power 
plants, that millions of nuclear medicine 
procedures are done in our hospitals, 
and that nearly every university uses 
radioactive tracers in research. If this 
is a "radioactive mess," then let's take 
some lessons and reduce the enor- 
mous volume of our municipal waste. 
Joel I. Cehn 
Oakland, CADQ 



FUfUDS 



PERSONAL FINANCIAL-MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE: 

Putting sophisticated analytical and speculative tools in your" hands 

By Patric Helmaan 



The eighth 

edition of Andrew 

Tobias's 

Managing Your 

Money further 

extends the 

program's ability 

to interact 

electronically with 

financial 

institutions. 




Maybe it's the increase in com- 
puter power that has accompa- 
nied decreases in price. Maybe 
it's the recession. Maybe it's just 
lime. Whatever the reason, more 
and more people I know are us- 
ing their personal computers as 
money-management tools. 

It used to be a joke, and not all 
that many years ago: the PC as the 
world's most expensive check- 
book manager. In the early days 
of personal computing — all of a 
decade or so ago — the joke car- 
ried a barbed accuracy. Software 
could help you balance your 
checkbook, extend mortgage 
amortizations, and calculate invest- 
ment growth at varying interest 
rates — fairly simple calculations, 
easily accomplished with an add- 
ing machine or calculator and per- 
formed without much more diffi- 
culty via pencil and paper. Hard- 
ly a reason to sink several thou- 
sand dollars into a PC. 

Well, PCs are a lot less costly 
and a lot more capable today. 
The capabilities of financial-plan- 
ning and money-management 
software have increased dramat- 
ically as well. The best programs 
can, indeed, balance your check- 
book, but they can also generate 
insights and even advice. 

Consider the latest version (num- 



ber 8!) of Andrew Tobias's Manag- 
ing Your Money (MECA Soft- 
ware). I've used the program for 
years, to my benefit, and I've ben- 
efited as well from its growth over 
that same period. Tobias's soft- 
ware has several things going for 
it, not least Andy Tobias himself. 

For one thing, Tobias is a real 
financial writer, not a program- 
mer. Tobias's journalistic experi- 
ence informs many aspects of his 
software: Manuals and onscreen 
instructions are clear and easy to 
read, there are occasional flash- 
es of wit and elegance, and ev- 
erything is tailored to the average 
person, not computer wizards. 

For another, Tobias and his 
staff of programmers/designers 
have understood since the first 
version of this program that finan- 
cial modeling can be as valuable 
to individuals as it is to corpora- 
tions. Just as VisiCalc, Lotus 1-2- 
3 and other spreadsheets put 
what-if and linked-asset/liability 
scenarios in the hands of finan- 
cial officers, so do the best per- 
sonal-finance software programs 
place substantial speculative and 
analytical tools on your desk 

Andy Tobias understands that 
most of us keep our financial rec- 
ords in a shoe box or oversized 
envelope, and he uses that met- 
aphor throughout a product line 
that includes dedicated portfolio 
managers and a tax-preparation 
package — TaxCut 1040 — that 
brings a fairly high level of artifi- 
cial intelligence to your IRS 
forms. Think of the software as a 
shoe box, he advises, and toss 
your receipts, checks, dividend 
amounts, and so on inside. The 
software does the rest. 

Thus in Managing Your Money, 
yourchecking accounts, savings 
accounts, credit cards, mortgag- 
es, investments, and debts all are 
linked, enabling you to derive com- 
plex and thorough portraits of 
your total worth — or lack thereof. 



Couple the linkages with sophis- 
ticated analytical tools and what- 
if generators, throw in electronic 
notepads and calculators, and 
you have a powerful and multi- 
capable tool. Some shoe box. 

None of these features, to be 
frank, are all that unusual today — 
there are quite a few good finan- 
cial programs available, including 
Quicken by Intuit and WealthStar- 
ter and WealthBuilder from Reali- 
ty Technologies. Even mighty Mi- 
crosoft has weighed in with a pro- 
gram called, simply, Money. 
There are quite a few tax-prepa- 
ration packages on the market, 
and even more stock-market/port- 
folio managers. 

Led by Tobias and Quicken, 
personal financial software takes 
increasing advantage of the oppor- 
tunities presented by telecommu- 
nications. A computer that's not 
connected to the world is a crip- 
pled computer, especially when 
dealing with financial information. 
You can file tax returns electroni- 
cally, via telephone lines; move 
funds through a modem; monitor 
the stock market in realtime; 
place buy and sell orders, letting 
your computer dial your broker's 
number; and use information ser- 
vices to obtain backgrounds on 
possible investments. 

Money is information, existing, 
electronically, in scattered loca- 
tions throughout the larger 
world. Now software tools are avail- 
able to let you participate, inter- 
actively, in that larger cyber-econ- 
omy without leaving your own, 
probably tax-deductible, home of- 
fice and keyboard. 

If you haven't looked at person- 
al financial-management software 
in a few years, you've missed a 
revolution, If you haven't consid- 
ered using a personal computer 
to assist. you in managing, ana- 
lyzing, and improving your finan- 
cial picture, you may be missing 
the boat. DQ 



IAJHEEL5 

PICK-'EM-UP TRUCKS: 

They're not just for cowboys, carpenters, and-good ol' boys 

By Jeffrey Zygmont 



"Pickup owners 
are a dif- 
ferent type of 
person," 
says Tom Dukes, 
a market 
analyst at J.D. 
Power & 
Associates. "They 
give their 
trucks names. 
They treat 
them like a part of 
the family." 



Even when she's not act- 
ing, Janine Turner plays 
a convincing Maggie, the 
spunky bush pilot in the CBS sit- 
com Northern Exposure. Off the 
set, in Seattle, she sports about 
in a GMC Sierra, an imposing 
black pickup truck with dark-tint- 
ed windows and a monster en- 
gine, Urbane, genteel, a far cry 
from the rough-and-tumble of Amer- 
ican trucking, Turner represents 
the growing social acceptance of 
a vehicle that for decades embod- 
ied the rebellious, do-it-yourself as- 
pect of American culture. 

"There used to be a stigma if 
you were seen in a truck," says Ed 
Schoener, assistant segment man- 
ager for Chevy pickups. "Now you 
find them in driveways of affluent 
neighborhoods." 

Yet even with wider accep- 
tance, the pickup remains a man- 
ifestation of the pioneer ethic: a go- 
anywhere, do-anything vehicle 
that promotes nomadic self-suffi- 
ciency. With their long beds and 
open backs — perhaps with an op- 
tional towing package — pickups 
can be loaded on the run. Cargo 
can hang out any which way. 
Even the extra seats next to the 
driver seem an afterthought: 



There's simply no other way to 
use the space. Thus a pickup is 
the ultimate personal car, made 
for its driver and the ton or so of 
possessions the owner can heap 
in the back. 

No wonder then that full-sized 
pickups — sold by Ford, Dodge, 
and GM's Chevrolet and GMC di- 
visions — are made only in Ameri- 
ca, where self-reliance remains a 
primary virtue. About 1 .75 million 
Americans bought pickups in 
1991, In better years, the indus- 
try sells 2 million, about 15 per- 
cent of the light-vehicle market. 

"It signifies the rugged individ- 
ualism of all Americans," says 
Mike Olind, a burly but playful 42- 
year-old salesman and some- 
times welder from Dearborn, Mich- 
igan. Olind has owned a pickup 
since he began driving 25 years 
ago. He just traded his 1984 F- 
250 Ford for a smaller 1980 Ford 
Courier pickup, hoping to save on 
gas while he looks for a job. 
"You're much more independent 
in a pickup than you ever could 
be in a car," he says. 

Full-sized pickups, the pickups 
of lore, are still the most popular, 
accounting for about 60 percent 
of trucks sold. But they're grow- 




ing less representative of U.S. 
truckers, especially as trucks sof- 
ten their edges to let more peo- 
ple into the fold. "The distinction 
between cars and trucks is not as 
great as it used to be," says Chet 
Kuziemko, chief marketing strat- 
egist for Ford, which has been 
making pickups for 75 years. 

The change began in earnest 
when compact pickups appeared 
about a decade ago. Once 
called minipickups, compacts are 
generally at least two feet shorter 
than full-sized trucks. They carry 
much less cargo, They handle 
more like cars. First both Ford and 
Chevy imported little pickups 
from Japan. Then Chevrolet real- 
ly kicked things off in 1982 with its 
American-made S-10 minipickup. 
Ford's Ranger followed in about 
a year. Today there are also min- 
is from Toyota, Nissan, Isuzu, and 
other Japan-based manufactur- 
ers, accounting for less than 1 per- 
cent of pickups sold in the U.S. 

More than anything, the com- 
pacts bring fickle youth to the pick- 
up fraternity. Because they're rel- 
atively cheap, "a lot of young peo- 
ple buy them," says market ana- 
lyst Dukes. About $10,000 buys a 
new Ford Ranger with a custom 
interior, air conditioning, alumi- 
num wheels, and a cassette 
deck — more than you'll find on 
any new automobile of like price. 

But even if compact pickups 
start out as car substitutes, they 
seem invariably to find the nomad 
in their owners. Consider Liz 
Longsworth, a writer and editor liv- 
ing on Boston's North Shore. She 
bought a 1988 Chevy S-10 after 
her 1964 Volvo wore out. The 
truck has already earned its 
keep by hauling her mountain 
bike. "I like the independence of 
loading up my life and moving it 
around," she says. 

"You can go wherever you 
want, be self-sufficient, sleep in 
the back if you want to. " DO 



POLITICAL 5CIEftJCE 

WHOSE LIFE IS THIS, ANYHOW? 
Science, religion, and RU 486 ■ 

By Tom Dworetzky 



Instead of 

protesting at 

abortion 

clinics, perhaps 

right-to-lifers 

could offer to 



■ f% ■ hen science bangs 
| I against religion, they 
W %J both lose. Hold the 
Ptolemaic view of the universe 
long enough and you find your 
knowledge surpassed by those 
who don't. Since history shows 
that true scientific knowledge 
will win out, it's ironic that this chill- 
ing effect on the freedom of 
thought is ultimately futile. New 
ideas relentlessly make their way 
from other parts of the world 
where doctrines prohibiting chal- 
lenge and debate hold no sway. 
In secret, through word of 
mouth, via smuggled manu- 
scripts, and in new technology, 
the advances wrought from free 




raise unborn 

children or lead 

the fight for 

schooling and 

support for 

unwed mothers. 



thinking take hold and finally pros- 
per. You eventually find yourself 
stagnating in the intellectual — 
and economic— backwaters. 

Keeping this in mind, there are 
two ways these days to look at 
the health-care cost crisis: It's tak- 
ing a bigger and bigger chunk of 
the GNP, and that's bad; or, it's 
one of the few boom industries 
left in which we've got a global 
lead, and that's good. Except 
that thanks to a vocal minority— 
the religious antiabortionists — 
we stand a good chance to lose 
that lead. I'll briefly digress here 
to express my opinion about this 
so-called "right-to-life" movement. 



It's mine, and you may disagree 
with it — that's American. 

"Right to" whose life? Instead 
of lying down in front of abortion 
clinics and hassling women who 
legally and morally have a right 
to decide what to do with their 
bodies, why don't you get up and 
take out your checkbooks and 
say to each as she walks 
through the door: "Excuse me 
dear, but may I support you and 
your child until that child reach- 
es the age of majority?" How 
about, at least, taking a vocifer- 
ous stand on the role of men in 
pregnancy? Women don't get 
pregnant — couples do. What 
about mandatory paternity testing 
and a tough stand favoring male 
support of children they father? 
What about leading the fight for 
prenatal health care, schooling 
and support for women with de- 
pendent children, and more con- 
traception and sexual-health ed- 
ucation (starting with high-school 
programs)? If men responsible for 
siring children — and those of you 
who'd strip women of their right 
to choose — don't want to pay the 
piper, then they shouldn't dance 
to the tune. 

Moreover, thanks to the so- 
called "life" movement, sick, non- 
pregnant women in the United 
States suffering from a variety of 
ills may well die this year. Why? 
Because hormone-related drugs, 
like RU 486, that cause abortions, 
can also save lives. These drugs 
cause all kinds of changes in 
bo'dy chemistry. Vanguard for- 
eign research shows that the 
hormonal changes they bring 
about may offer powerful thera- 
pies for cancers such as breast 
cancer (now hitting epidemic pro- 
portions among women), and 
Cushing's disease, just to name 
a few. What about these women's 
right to life? 

The problem with religion, for 
me, is that taking it too religious- 



ly provides all the answers— and 
the only answers. That's not just 
intolerance, it's also irrational, 
bad science. 

Then there are the "social and 
economic ironies surrounding the 
antiabortionists' frenzy over RU 
486. A large-scale study of the 
drug's usefulness in treating wom- 
en with breast cancer recently 
went to Canadian, not U.S., re- 
searchers. Why? Privately, scien- 
tists in this country have con- 
fessedto staffers at Oregon Con- 
gressman Ron Wyden's D.C. of- 
fice that they don't need the 
threats and harassment. Step- 
ping over people lying in front of 
the lab is not the way to get 
good science done. Add to that 
the appalling FDA hustle last 
year when the administration 
buckled to antiabortionist pres- 
sure and issued an import alert 
against RU 486. On the list with 
this proven medication are a raft 
of phony and fraudulent items, 
like laetrile. 

What's also sad about this 
whole misguided affair is that, 
thanks to the antiabortionists, the 
United States will lose the lead in 
medical research concerning an 
entire new class of substances, 
and with this, an entire approach 
to life-saving therapies — and a 
profitable market. Our friends in 
Japan and Europe will not so en- 
cumber their scientific communi- 
ty with antiquated, Luddite miscon- 
ceptions. So in due time we will 
be importing these life-saving 
drugs to treat a wide variety of 
hormonally related diseases 
(such as many cancers). The 
good news for those who think 
this country is founded on individ- 
ual rights: Once the drugs are ap- 
proved for nonabortion uses, phy- 
sicians will be able to prescribe 
them to pregnant women choos- 
ing to have an abortion. In the pri- 
vacy of their offices, no one will 
be able to stop them. DQ 



ONE FOR ALL AND ALL FOR ONE: 

Are the world's space powers ready to' go to Mars— tog ether? 

By John Elder 



^^team recently laid out a 
#^b& workable plan to put a 
M % manned spacecraft on 
Mars by 2017. But the scheme 
was devised not by NASA or the 
European Space Agency. It 
came (ram 137 students from 26 
countries who completed the proj- 
ect as part of their course work 
at the International Space Univer- 
sity's 1991 session. 

Founded in the mid 1980s, the 
university convenes in a different 
country each summer for just ten 
weeks. It immerses its diverse 
students— typically aerospace- 
professionals, lawyers, research 
scientists, journalists, and grad- 
uate students — in graduate-level, 
space-related courses and as- 
signs them a challenging project, 
like planning an international mis- 
sion to Mars. 

For the students, such an ex- 
pedition raised questions that the 
space agencies probably hadn't 
had to consider. To begin with, 
not all -of" the students agreed 
that going to Mars was worth- 
while. And others, such as Tan- 
zanian robotics engineer Damian 
Haule, wondered why their coun- 
tries should participate. 

"That was quite a shocker for 
the American L5 Society students 
who thought everybody be- 
lieved," says design project codi- 
rector Wendell Mendell of the 
NASA Johnson Space Center in 
Houston, Texas. "And it was a 
learning experience for Third 
World people who had never 
thought about this exploration as 
having a meaning for them and 
their countries." 

Deciding on a spacecraft de- 
sign provided the major technical 
challenge. The trip should be as 
short as possible to minimize the 
astronauts' exposure io radiation. 
And since the effects of long- 
term exposure to low gravity are 
still unknown, the students want- 
edtheir spacecraft to have artifi- 



cial gravity, created by continu- 
ously spinning the spacecraft. 

But the fastest spacecraft de- 
sign couldn't spin to maintain grav- 
ity on the return trip: It relied on 
the propellant's weight, which 
would greatly decrease on the 
journey back to Earth, to keep the 
craft balanced and spinning. So 
the students compromised and de- 
cided on nuclear electric propul- 
sion, a slower system whose great- 
er mass would make it possible 
to sustain artificial gravity through- 
out the trip, 

The project finally reached the 
inevitable bottom line: How 
much will it cost? The students es- 
timated the total cost of their mis- 
sion at roughly $200 billion. How- 
ever, they could only project 
some $150 billion in funding, a 
shortfall they hoped could be rem- 
edied by changes in the costly 
way Western space agencies cur- 
rently do business, 

Who will take charge of the mis- 
sion? The students had some ' 
novative ideas about that. They 
created a group called the Inter- 
national Space Exploration Orga- 
nization, composed of national 
space agencies, like NASA, and 
international, intergovernmental 
bodies, like the European Space 



Agency, to oversee the mission. 
Rather than collecting funds 
from members to then be distrib- 
uted among them as payment for 
services, ISEO will simply con- 
tract tasks out to the members 
best able to complete them. 

Inevitably, the learning experi- 
ence extended beyond the tech- 
nical and political. Quebec-born 
law clerk Celine Levesque, who 
had never felt very Canadian, 
was surprised to find herself 
speaking up when she felt Can- 
ada was being left out due to its 
small space budget. And near 
the end of the session, terrestrial 
reality intruded. As CNN showed 
us the coup in Moscow, a Soviet 
scientist asked me to write out the 
phrase "civil disobedience" and 
hurried off to a meeting. 

A shock like that could have re- 
duced the Mars mission to an un- 
satisfying game of "let's pretend." 
But everyone had worked too 
hard, especially at the slippery 
task of cooperating despite so 
many differences. It may be the 
prospect of going to Mars togeth- 
er, however much harder that 
makes it, that justiiies one partic- 
ipant's description of the mission 
as "a launch window for the evo- 
lution of the human spirit." Dd 




Before the ISU 
students 
could choose 
a way to get 
to Mars, they had 
to decide if 
they even wanted 
to go. 




cofUTiruuunn 

THE DUTY OF GENIUS AND THE LIMITS OF SCIENCE: 

Killer asteroids: first the dinosaurs, now Mars' atmosphere; 

plus, office workers see the (nonfluorescent) light 



What did John Keats, Som- 
erset Maugham, William Car- 
los Williams, and Gertrude 
Stein have in common besides 
a certain way with words? 
They also shared secret and 
not-so-secret scientific ambi- 
tions. And if Stein never actu- 
ally received her degree, 
well, I guess a doctorate is a 
doctorate is a doctorate. 

At first glance, science and 
poetry may seem like an oxy- 
moron. The image of stern, 
white-coated scientists fever- 
ishly searching black holes of their souls to determine Ihe 
perfect word to rhyme with quasar just doesn't fit with our 
Byronic romanticism. Scientists themselves seem to be 
somewhat embarrassed about aesthetic skeletons in the 
closet. The late anthropologist Loren Eiseley spoke of let- 
ling the "long suppressed vice of poetry out ol Ihe base- 
ment" in a letter to his friend W.H. Auden (at left). But as 
the world becomes more and more complex, it will be the 
poets who once again (as they did in ancient Greece and 
Rome) explain "it all." Eiseley suggests that "the writer's 
creativity is to open man's eye to the human 
meaning of science." 

"cience works on the premise that 

k there is an answer for everything, and 

that may explain why scientists have, 




abandoned his median praviia-: io follow his Muse. 



This was the time of Sherlock 
Holmes — look and you will 
find." says Shyamal Bagchee, 
who is writing a book about 
Ross supported by the Shastri- 
Indo Canadian Institute and 
the University of Alberta Cen- 
tral Research Fund. 

The inability of science to 
solve basic human problems 
is often the subject of poems 
by scientists. "Ross wrote 'The 
Exile' to preserve his balance 
of mind, to come to terms with 
the positivism of his day and 
"sintegration of Indian civiliza- 



the horrible reality of the d 

tion," Bagchee says. More recently, Gregory Benford, i 
physicist at the University of California, writes of human- 
kind fumbling with simple door latches while "our crisp 
reason leaps lepton-ligMy over radi of quarks." Says Ben- 
ford: "We know that the mind's abilities are interrelated. 
The simplification of right-brain/left-brain is outdated. Scien- 
tific thought uses both, and so does-poetry." 

According to Jonathan Post, poet and aerospace en- 
gineer, "Poetry often works within a rigid structure in 
which inspiration makes ihe direrence between the mun- 
dane and the beautiful. There's an aestheticism in sci- 
ence that drives you to the right answer just as a certain 
elegance inspires you to choose one word over another 
in poetry. You get that peak experience when you think 
hroughout history, turned to poetry that a portion of the universe has revealed itself to you." 
to address the ultimately unanswer- William Carlos Williams, arguably one of the best poets 
able questions. Sir Ronald Ross, America ever produced, was perhaps the most famous 
a nineteenth-century bacteriologist scientist/poet. An extremely successful doctor, he often 
who won the Nobel Prize, in 19.02 for relied on his experience as a physician for material for his 
poems. The beauty and pain of birth, the suffering of ill- 
ness and death are described so that the artist's percep- 
tion of the world blends with the physician's, allowing us 
to see beyond the facts that the practitioner relates and 
understand an intangible truth. 

Balance between reason and imagination is perhaps 
the key. What causes a scientist to take that leap of faith 
that propels him past the intelligence of his peers and 
allows him to make a discovery is the same intuitive skill 
that compels him to create poetry. Without intuition and 
the ability to use fact and structure as well as imagina- 
tion, scientific revelations from Einstein's theories of rela- 
tivity to Fleming's discovery of penicillin may never have 
been discovered.— LESLIE O'CONNOR 




his discovery that malaria was trans- 
mitted by mosquito, wrote poetry that 
Dressed the doubts and frus- 
itions encountered in his 
■ r ork with the oppressed in 
India. "In contrast, at the 
me, Europeans had a 
kind of overwhelming 
optimism, They be- 
everything 
■j Id be solved 
i bit of 




BETTER VISION, 

BETTER 

VISIONS 

Some terminal 
cancer patients 
occasionally 
smoke mari- ]f juana 
to relieve the^B^ pain 
caused by ^their illness. 
Now a University of the 
West indies pharmacology 
professor has discovered 
another medical benefit of 
Cannabis sativa: enhanced 
night vision. 

Manley West had often 
heard Jamaican fishermen 
boast that using marijuana 
gave them the superior 
night vision that enabled 
them to guide their boats 
through narrow inlets and 
around barely submerged 
coral reefs without com- 
passes or lights. But only 
after an extended nighttime 
fishing trip with a captain 
who had drunk a potent 
extract of rum-soaked mari- 
juana leaves did West 
become convinced that this 
Jamaican fish tale was true. 

The nocturnal expedition 
sent the professor back to 



" his labora-f 
T tory at the 
' Kingston, Jarnai-I 
ca, university to 
' search for the cause 
of the marijuana-induced! 
enhancement. He and 
ophthalmologist Albert Lock-' 
hart eventually derived 
Canasol, a nonpsychoactive 
marijuana extract that 
West claims leads to a 
"s : gnilicant improvement in 
night vision." 

Canasol also alleviates 
glaucoma symptoms by 
reducing fluid pressure in 
the eyeball, West says, but 
he's unsure whether the 
same effect causes the 
improved night vision. Be- 
cause Canasol isn't even 
nildly disorienting, the drug 
could be used safely in a 
wide variety of nighttime 
situations, he adds. 

However, Canasol proba- 
bly won't be available in 
the United States anytime 
soon: West lacks the money 
to fund tests to prove the 
drug's safety, "You have to 
be a millionaire to get any 
drug approved these days," 
he says. — Timothy Walker 



GETTING KIDS AND 
SCIENCE TOGETHER 

"Curiosity Takes You 
Everywhere" — that's the 
theme of ihis year's Nalional 
Science and Technology 
Week (NSTW), to be 
celebrated from April 26 to 
May 2. Overseen by the 
National Science Foundation, 
NSTW promotes science 
awareness by playing upon 
k:ds' natural curiosity to show 
them that science is painless 
and even fun. 

Demonstrations and activi- 
ties sponsored by local 
communities play a large 
part. Last year, for example, 
the entire town of Peoria, 
Illinois, pulled together for a 
science scavenger hunt 
involving local businesses, 
libraries, parks, medical 
centers, and the zoo, while 
Cornell University in Ithaca, 
New York, invited area 
students to tour its labs, meet 
professors, and participate 
in experiments. 

"Local observances of 
National Science and Tech- 
nology Week illustrate 
our program best," says 




Jamaican 'is. - - «/■■;;:. :!e ■-* ex:-y^r:: : ^s:v r^g:,: v: 

32 OMNI 



Mary Bullock, the project's 
coordinator. 

This year's NSTW will 
concentrate on sports sci- 
ence as well as curiosity. 
Tennis great Arthur Ashe will 
kick off the celebration at 
the NSF's partner school, 
Banneker Academic High 
School in Washington, D.C. 
In addition, athletes Bill 
Demby and Edwin Moses will 
appear in a new NSF film, A 
Brain, Books, and a Curiosity, 
that tells inner-city youths 
that science can take them 
anywhere. The athletes show 
how science has played a 
crucial role in their careers, 
from the technology that 
makes Demby's artificial legs 
flexible and sturdy to 
Moses' degree in physics. 

Local science museums, 



THE ANCIENT SLING 
WAS, IN EFFECT, 
A PREHISTORIC PISTOL, 
ENABLING PRIMITIVE 
HUNTERS TO THROW A 
STONE AS FAST AS 
60 METERS A SECOND. 



schools, and community 
centers are already planning 
activities. For more infor- 
mation on National Science 
and Technology Week, 
contact your local science 
museum or write to the 
National Science Foundation, 
NSTW, Room 527, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 20550.— Beth Azar 

"I don't know if there are 
men on the moon, 
but it there are, they must 
be using Earth as 
their lunatic asylum. " 

— George Bernard Shaw 




ps'/c'ici'/c. 1 -- !*a (".'''! a, '■■«;: Mar.son 



VOICES FROM 
THE ID 

Psychotics, people who 

lose touch with reality, often 
hear voices. When do they 
obey these voices, and 
when do they ignore them? 
John Junginger, a psychol- 
ogist al Louisiana State 
University, received a 
two-year grant in 1990 from 
the National Institute of 
Mental Health to answer 
these questions, which will 
help determine which 
individuals pose a threat to 
themselves and others. 
Most expert testimony 
presented on the subject in 
courts is a fraud, "just 
based on impressions," he 
claims. "We're trying to get 
actual data." 

Preliminary results, fallow- 
ing a pilot study with 51 
subjects, show that the 
content of the command 
bears no relationship to 
compliance. "A person will 
comply at the same rate, 
whether he is told to turn on 
tie TV or to go kill 
someone," Junginger says. 



Those- who obey com- 
mands do so unquestion- 
ingly and without hesitation. 
One woman, for example, 
heard a voice telling her to 
jump out the window. She 
did so, right in front of her 
lawyer. Fortunately, she 
survived to relay the story to 
Junginger. 

Psychotics are more 
likely to comply when they 
can recognize the voice, ho 
matter whose voice il is, 
Junginger says. They also 
tend to obey if the voice fits 
in with particular delusions 
they have. However, the 
greatest risk of dangerous 
behavior appears to stem 
from persecutory delusions. 
in which the subject fears 
that people are--out to get 
him or her. Junginger 
speculates that such delu- 
sions lead to more frequent 
compliance because the 
psychosis is more systema- 
tized, "Everything seems 
to fall into place. There 
appear to be logical 
connections, even though 
the delusion is patently 
absurd." — Steve Nad is 



BITING BACK AT 
MOSQUITOES 

Virtually no one likes 
mosquitoes, those pesky little 
creatures that buzz around 
porch lights and bite anyone 
foolish enough to step 
outside. So most people will 
be delighted to learn that two 
molecular biologists at Mem- 
phis State University have hit 
upon a new way to kill the 
little buggers that doesn't 
require either a fly swatter or 
toxic sprays. 

Randy Murphy and Ed- 
ward Stevens, Jr., spliced 
genes from a common soil 
bacterium, Bacillus thurin- 
aiensis, into the genetic ' 
material of a blue-green 
algae on which mosquito 
larvae feed. The genetically 
altered algae produces a 
toxin fatal to mosquitoes and 
black flies but harmless to 
other organisms. 

"The most common ap- 
proach to mosquito control 
these days is to spray 
malathion, which can cause 
all kinds of health problems 
to people," Stevens says. 
"This is a way to achieve the 
same result without using 
toxic chemicals." 

So far, this approach has 
been tested only on the 
Cu/ex mosquito, which trans- 
mits elephantiasis and other 
diseases. Murphy and Ste- 
vens need to conduct further 
tests to see which of the 
more than 200 known 
species of mosquito eat 
blue-green algae and wheth- 
er the Bacillus toxin kills 
them. The scientists are 
particularly eager to deter- 
mine the technique's effec- 
tiveness against the malaria- 
carrying Anopheles mosquito. 



ISAAC NEWTON'S 
ONLY RECORDED 
UTTERANCE WHILE HE 
WAS A MEMBER 
OF PARLIAMENT WAS 
A REQUEST TO 
OPEN THE WINDOW. 

THE SEVERED FINGERTIPS 
OF A YOUNG 
CHILD CAN REGENERATE 
IN ABOUT 1 1 WEEKS. 

FLIES HAVE 1,500 TASTE 
BUDS— ALL LOCATED 
ON THEIR FEET 



If successful, the new 
mosquito-control technique 
could affect people all over 
the globe — even the folks 
back home in Memphis. 
"There are 48 species of 
mosquito right here in 
Shelby County," Stevens 
says. "Years ago, yellow 
fever killed off so many 
people that the city almost 
lost its charter." 

—Steve Nadis 




coruTinjuunn 




§ 



LACKING 
IN ATMOSPHERE 

Here on Earth, scientists 
speculate 'that, the impact 
of an' asteroid 'millions .of 
years' .ago wreaked such 
immense environmental hav- 
oc that it killed off the mighty 
dinosaur: Now Ann: Vickery, 
assistant planetary scientist 
at the Lunar.and Planetary- 
Lab, located' at the"-- - . 



Univo'sity of Arizors it- 
Tucson, theorizes that 
similar impacts on Mars by 
asteroids, comets, and 
other space-gong objects 
may have done away 
■with most, of that planet's 
atmosphere. ' 

.. . Projectiles rained down 
furiously on Mars initially, 
their.impacts releasing their 

■ own. gases and r.noss within 
the planet, heiping'to build 
Mars' atmosphere. Vickery 
contends that toward the ■ 

: end of the bombardment, 
the strikes grevv less 
frequent but more energet- 
ic "As the planet grewin 
mass and increased ir~ 
Q'-avitsiiiona! pull.'' 1 she says-,- 
"the impacting- objects 
struck at higher velocities." 

vickery developed in- 
creasing y complex comput- 
er models that used, such 
data as the mass of an 
impacting body impact 
velocity, and mass' and' 



' velocity of atmospheric, 
gases "lie results showed 
thai such powerful hits 
col. j:'urnes : 

,: a mixture o: the vsporizec 
object and part of the 

;. ■! ■■■!. ...!■: ■■■ :| i" .:■ ii/:i 

ly tearing away a tenth 
of 1 percent of the 
atmosphere at a tvr-e. While 
Mars lost, air, -terrestrial 
planets ' : ko Earlh and Venus 
held' fast; their higher 
masses making if more 
difficult for asteroids to rip 
away the atmosphere. 
The erosion or Mara' 
atmosphere by imoacts 
could also explain hew the 
red planet lost its atmpspher- 
e pressure, procipilatior, 

■ id ace wa er. "The 

existence of what look like- 
anoiort "ivervaiieyson vi a r it- 
suggests thai its ean'y 
atmosphere was quite ■ 
different Tom iis present 
at"osphere." V;cKory says. 
Patricia Barnes Svamey 



SKIMMING PROFIT 

Sometimes serendipity can 
be a scientist's bes! friend. 
The researchers at the 
Electric Power Research 
Institute (EPRI) in Palo Alto, 
California, wanted to make 
reconstituted skim milk taste 
more like whole milk, They 
wound up with a process 
that achieves that goal and 
saves energy to boot. 

Dairy factories currently 
manufacture powdered skim 
milk by heating liquid 
skim milk to drive off ihe 
water. The EPRI scientists 
tried freezing the skim milk 
instead. They filtered out the 
resulting ice crystals, pro- 
ducing a frozen concentrate 

34 OMNI 




Skim :::::>. .■■■; repsir.ir.o 



that tasted more like regular 
milk when reconstituted. 

"We're not sure why that 
should be, but we have table 
tests to prove it," says 
program manager Robert D. 
Jeffress. He and colleague 
Ammi Amarnath suspect the 
reason could be that heat 



A DOG SPORTS 17 
MUSCLES IN EACH EAR 
WHICH CAN BE 
USED TO RAISE AND 
LOWER THE 
EAR OR SWIVEL IT, 

EVERY FOUR SECONDS, 
SOMEONE IS INJURED 
IN AN ACCIDENT IN THE 
UNITED STATES; EVERY 
SIX MINUTES, THE 
ACCIDENT IS FATAL. 

A SHRIMP'S HEART IS 
IN ITS HEAD. 



creeks down milk proteins 
and cold preserves them. 

Also, the scientists say, 
skim milk produced by 
freezing may contain far less 
lactic acid, which should 
cheer those allergic to milk. 

EPRI has begun commer- 
cial tests of the freezing 
process at the Galloway 
West Company in Fond du 
Lac, Wisconsin. The Institute 
estimates that the process 
could save a typical dairy 
$100,000 yearly on energy 
bills. — George Nob be 

"A man's feet should be 
planted in his country, 
but his eyes should survey 
the world. " 

—George Santayana 



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other month, but will be billed for just one 
piece per month, S37.50" each, beginning 
prior to my firsl shipment. The cuslom- 
designed imported chessboard with stor- 
age case is mine at no additional charge. 





F^--:* ':■■ ~-7 















RETURN ASSURANCE POLICY 

!f you wish to reluTi iiov Frsnklin Mint 
purchase, uou may do so within 30 days of 
-.■our ro:eiCL ci ih:-t piriAis? to- rep acemsnf. 
credit or refund. 
oismfm 11991-71 




cDnjTiruuunn 



KEEPING AN EYE ON 
TIRED METAL 



could be the elusive early 
warning system long sought 
by structural engineers 
wanting a foolproof way to 
detect the metal fatigue that 
precedes catastrophic 
failure in bridges, oil rigs, and 
even aircraft. 

The device, called a 
fatigue fuse, consists of five 
parallel legs attached to a 



levels, according to Robert 
M. Bernstein, president of 
Tensiodyne in Los Angeles. 
Each of the fuse's legs is 
designed to have a different 
fatigue life, representing a 
specific percentage of the 
structure's fatigue life. When 
the structure reaches, for 
example, 40 percent of its 
fatigue life, the correspond- 
ing leg snaps. Thus, the fuse 
provides, Bernstein claims, a 
continuous series of warn- 
ings thai a microscopic 
fracture is developing, long 



STROKING A CAT'S FUR GENERATES ELECTRICITY; 
ABOUT 9,200,000,000 STROKES WOULD 
PRODUCE ENOUGH POWER TO LIGHT A 75-WATT 
LIGHT BULB FOR EXACTLY ONE MINUTE. 



flat metal frame. Each leg 
bears a series of nicks and 
notches designed to mimic 
the condition of the metal 
structure to which it's 
attached with epoxy resin. 
Much as an electrical fuse 
cuts out when its circuit 
receives too much current, 
the legs on the mechanical 
fuse snap, one by one, 
as the cumulative stress 
history on the structure it 
monitors exceeds preset 



before it becomes a dan- 
gerous macrocrack. 

The fuses cost about $400 
each, and about 200 would 
be used in a highway bridge. 
They require no electricity 
and could be integra:ed wth 
a microprocessor-controlled 
remote monitoring system, 
Bernstein says. 

"The concept is fundamen- 
tally acceptable," says 
Michael Cassaro, a professor 
of civil engineering at the 

Experts believe r!~;G\ rne;si ?;3:tgi.ie 
'i; .: ,; ,,., ■ 

to rip off 
ckmng High! in 1988. 





administered high-school 




. level algebra or geometry 




: tests to 1 ,534 volunteers, all 


Ijii' U\ -M\ 


of whom were roughly 


WmiM/fim 


equal in native math talent 


mV&inilkxm 


and had taken- high-school 


WM &\m 


algebra and geometry. 


,^ S( _ "-'■ ■■ 


Those who had not taken 


college math courses 


■■■■"■yTBsSSSmijiU: 


scored, a dismal average of 


ff.Hj.w7 laKMMfc- 


30 percent on the algebra 


^^t|Ki 


test, while those who had 




studied higher math in 
college scored an average 






a 2 + b 2 = <?■ -1 think. 


of 90 percent. Even 




people who had taken their 


MATH MEMORY 


last college math courses 




some 50 years before 


If you left math behind 


scored a highly respectable 


in high school, chances 


80 percent. 


are you re not much good 


Bahrick finds the results 


at it today. But if you 


quite upsetting: Most of us, 


took calculus or more 


after all, do not take college 


advanced math courses 


math courses. The educa- 


during college^ you can 


tional establishment has 


keep your math chops 


■ paid little attention to the 


intact for up to 50 years — 


"disappearing knowledge'' 


.even if you rarely use math 


phenomenon, he contends. 


in your daily life, according 


"It's absolutely appalling," 


to a study conducted at 


he says. "We spend all this 


Ohio Wesleyan University in 


money trying to impart 


Delaware. Ohio. 


knowledge, and we've 


Psychologists Harry 


never looked' at how long it 


Bahrick and. Lynda K. Hall 


lasts." — Bill Lawren 



University of Louisville in 
Kentucky who has consulted 
for the government on 
structural disasters. "I would 
be concerned about the 
specifics of calibration, but 
the device should work 



■"easonably well." 

— George Nobbe 

"Develop your eccentricities 

while you're young. 

That way, when you are 

old, people w 

think you're going gaga." 

— David Ogilvy 





coruTinjuunn 



GOOD DAY 
SUNSHINE 

Like some cheerful sun- 
light in your murky office 
cubicle? Sure you would. 
There's just one problem: 
You don't sit near a window. 

Now the window can 
come to you. Developed by 
researchers in California, 
holographic diffractive struc- 
ture technology bends natu- 
ral light, bounces it off a 
designated spot on the 
ceiling, and diffuses it into 
the room's dark areas. 

The technology involves 
coating window glass with a 
substance that reacts with 
light, much as three- 
dimensional holograms do, 
according to holographic 
engineer Richard lan-Frese, 
a project manager for the 
Advanced Environmental Re- 
search Group in Davis. The 
holographic window works 
best in direct sunlight, 
preferably in a building that 




Holographic v.- ■ sunny and 

spacious as Grand Centra! Station, but it will onghwn things up. 



has south, southeast, 
or southwest exposure. 
Two laser beams etch a 

light-wave interference pat- 
tern on a photographic 
emulsion that is used to 
make a master form to 

window coating, 
a plastic that can also be 
suspended between sheets 
of glass. The microscopic 



lines on the coating redirect 
incoming light much the 
«rime way a Venetian blind 
does when its slats are 
turned, lan-Frese explains. 

Just how the coating 
reflects sunlight to the same 
spot on the ceiling, winter or 
summer, is a closely 
guarded secret. Prototype 
testing will begin later this 



THE MOST REMOTE 
OBJECT VISIBLE TO THE 
HUMAN EYE IS THE 
ANDROMEDA GALAXY, 
ABOUT 2.2 MILLION 
LIGHT-YEARS AWAY. 

UNTIL A FREAK STORM 
IN 1971, NOT A 
SINGLE DROP OF RAIN 
HAD FALLEN ON 
CHILE'S ATACAMA 
DESERT IN 400 YEARS. 



year, lan-Frese says, and the 
specially coated windows 
could be available in large 
multistory buildings by 1994. 
— George Nobbe 



"Disney, of course, has the 
best casting. If he 
doesn't like an actor, he just 
tears him up." 

— Alfred Hitchcock 




More trash than treasure is 
sleeping with the tishes. 



YO HO HO AND A 
BARREL OF OIL 

Old shipwrecks have 
been haunting the Pacific 
Northwest coast. But their 
visitations have taken more 
harmful forms than moaning 
white specters rattling 
chains, and their. victim has 
been the environment. 

The Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency (EPA) has cited 
ten shipwrecks on the 
bottom of Washington 
State's Puget Sound as 
potentially hazardous be- 
cause they hold thousands 
of gallons of fuel and 
chemicals. One of them, an 
oil tanker, sank in 1964 with 



more than 72,000 gallons of 
very-heavy- grade petrole- 
um. The EPA has also shown 
concern about wrecks 
elsewhere in the area, such 
as the barge that sank in 
1984 with 4,800 barrels of a 
highly toxic substance 
called rassinate mud. 

When small oil slicks 
recently washed ashore 
near Port Townsend, Wash- 
ington, the EPA discovered 
that a converted Navy 
freighter that sank in 1960 
was responsible— high 
waves or winds flushed 
petroleum residues out of 
the wreck. 

The EPA generally leaves 
a wreck alone unless it 



poses an immediate prob- 
lem, hoping that as the ships 
start collapsing on them- 
selves, sediment will natural- 
ly cover their cargo. 

"When dealing with a 
shipwreck nearly 30 years 
old whose structural integrity 
is unknown, it could be more 
risky trying to salvage the 
cargo than just letting it leak 
out slowly," says Mike Rylko, 
a marine biologist at the 
EPA's Office of Coastal 
Waters in Seattle. 

How many shipwrecks 
carry contaminated materi- 
als? "It's hard to say 
exactly," Rylko admits, "but 
there are an awful lot down 
there." — Cynthia L. Pollock 



The only difference in 

today's basic research is 

in the tools we use. 




In the l600's. Sir Isaac Newton led the scientific 
revolution with breaklhrougl t discoveries in optics, 
mathematics and physics using little more than his 
incredible mind. Today, America is about to provide 
scientists witli a basic research tool that promises to 
expand our knowledge as never before. 

The Superconducting Super Collider i'SSQ will 
propel subatomic particles at near the speed of light. 
Head-on collisions will shatter the particles to reveal 
the constituents of matter. Such basic research will 
provide scientists at the SSC .laboratory with answers 
to some of our greatest questions. 



And that's only the beginning. Because once 
we possess this information, the resulting applications 
for medicine, computers, materials and a host of 
other technological areas will exceed our wildest 
dreams. 

Obviously, much has changed since Newton's 
time. Yet, the driving forces that have taken us so far 
still remain the same. Our hunger for knowledge and 
our need for basic research. 

GENERAL DYNAMICS 

A Strong Company For A Strong Country 



PORTRAIT 
OF A 

PROPHET 

By Deiflra Sullivan 

A scientist reveals the 
secrets at the 
super conscious mind. 

Photograph 
By Tom Zrmnerol 



ft 9:00 a.m. In Tokyo. The chairman o! a large 



T ^^-_!^ 



, California. He then 



wise to establish a 
ship with a parti 



Wr> 



j company has called aboard 
able. Sitting across from the 
[quarters of the corporation 

al counseling "sessions" 


meetinf, and as Hie ex- 
VIPs are two impeccably 
until ®m$&$ before tne 

to the New Age movement 
and he is constantly asked 


n services for major Japanese 


to differentiate between CAI 




ngu- 

npanies, 
and 






nancial services cor 


of Ss 
psyc 


n Francisco Bay Area 
ism. According to 








— he s a man uncom- 




jargon and emotional excess 


PEWPM 


which seems to take root 
and blossom on the West 




nd the 


Coast— CAI s in a complete- 
ly different league. 

New Agers would certain- 



J autz cautions not to gal hung up on the method from which intuition flows, 
r It might come in a dream, from a gut feeling, as an insight, through trance 
J channeling. A specific mode doesn't make the information any less credible. 



extrasensory knowledge, of- 
ten gained through trance 
channeling. To Kautz, how- 
ever, the term psychic is 
misused and misunder- 
stood. His CAI staff are not 
psychics, he says; they're 
"expert intuitives." Similarly, 
Kautz doesn't use the word 
reading when he describes 
what Nunn does. Instead, 
he prefers session. Even the 
concept "extrasensory" is 
problematic. "What has 
traditionally been labeled as 
extrasensory or as paranor- 
mal is a universal human 
capacity which most people 
haven't chosen to exercise 
or develop," he says. 

There are a number of 
differences between hiring a 
psychic and working with 
CAI, Kautz claims. "Many 
psychics don't understand 
the processes they are 
dealing with," he says. 
"They are neither skilled nor 
responsible." And few 
psychics, he asserts, see 
their work in the context of 
broad social concerns and 
problems. "At CAI, we are 
professionals, committed to 
studying and analyzing the 
intuitive process." 

Like many Mew Age 
ideas, intuition seems easy 
to define — at least at first In 

42 OMNI 



actuality, however, pinning 
down the concept is like 
tackling a greased pig. 
Slithering in and out of the 
pursuer's grasp, the animal 
defies capture, wriggling 
free from every headlock. 
"Intuition is that inner 
knowing process by which 
we acquire knowledge," 
Kautz says, trying to grab 
the evasive "creature." He 
cautions not to get hung up 
on the method from which it 
flows. "It might come in a 
dream, from a gut feeling, 
as an insight or a hunch. It 
might come through what 
some people call channel- 
ing. A specific mode doesn't 
make the information any 
less valid or credible." 

Asked for examples of the 
intuitive process, Kautz says 
intuition manifests itself 
nonverbally to artists and 
composers through sounds 
and symbols. "When doc- 
tors or people in the helping 
professions just seem to 
know where the problem is 
and then go there and apply 



their rational skills, that's 
intuition at work. I'm more 
concerned about the nature 
■ of the information than about 
how it gets here," Kautz 
reiterates. 

For Brendan O'Regan, 
vice president for research 
at the Institute of Noetic 
Sciences in Sausalito, Cali- 
fornia, intuition is "a welling 
up into awareness of data 
that doesn't appear to 
derive in a linear fashion 
from normally perceived 
data." An intuitive person, 
he says, pays attention to 
non rational aspects of 
thoughts and feelings about 
complex problems. O'Re- 
gan maintains, however, 
that the word intuition has 
become a cover term for 
what in the seventies used 
to be psychic research. "I 
simply don't consider trance 
channeling and clairvoyant 
activity intuition." 

It is no secret, of course, 
that psychics claim they can 
predict the future, and many 
traditional psychics garishly 




n once had a "straight" career as a corporate consultant. 



market their abilities as 
such. CAI intuitives, Kautz 
says, do not predict the 
future as such. "Most 
people are afraid that their 
future is preset and 
psychics will reveal what's 
going to happen to them," 
Kautz says sympathetically, 
adding that he believes 
natural events can be 
predicted, but a human 
being's freedom of choice — 
the ability to decide — is 
inviolate. "We create our 
own world through the 
complex process of decision- 
making, both individually 
and collectively." 

Whenever Kautz takes his 
intuitives into a corporate 
setting, the guestion, Can 
you predict the future? 
invariably comes up. "We're 
not people who predict, 
although that may be a 
byproduct of what goes on," 
Kautz says. "Much of our 
work involves pointing out 
alternatives. We're more like 
Old Testament prophets or 
social engineers who see 
the way society is moving 
and identify the forces 
which are behind the 
movements. We recognize 
the critical role a person's 
choice plays in effecting 
what's going to happen in 
the future. We present 
options. That's the real 
nature of prophesy." 

With his deep-set eyes 
and gray beard, Kautz looks ' 
like he'd be more comfort- 
able in a classroom than in a 
sweat lodge. A graduate of 
MIT with degrees in 
electrical engineering and 
mathematics, he defies New 
Age stereotyping with his 
ultrascientific background 
and experience. Before he 
got involved in intuitive 
studies, Kautz was a staff 
scientist for over 35 years at 
the prestigious Stanford 
Research Institute (SRI) in 
Menlo Park, California, 
where he worked with a 
team of scientists to develop 
the first mainframe comput- 
er for the banking industry. 



ACCESSING YOUR INTUITION 



According to 'Bill Kautz, ev- 
ery human being has intui- 
tive abilities. Most people, 
though, haven't consciously 
chosen to develop their 
skills and use their intuition 
only sporadically. A good 
parallel is physical fitness, 
Developing your intuition 
and cultivating qualities like 
receptivity, sensitivity, and 
good listening skills is like get- 
ting in shape. It's something 
everyone can dp and they 
can do it in different ways. 
When counseling stu- 
dents on how to improve 
their intuitive skills, Kautz pre- 
sents a working model of 
the mind so. that students 
will better understand the 
ways in which direct, informa- 
tion flows. The' conscious 
mind is the arena for reason- 
ing and focusing attention. 
The subconscious, mind is a 
storehouse of impressions, 
feelings, fears, memories, 
and incomplete experi- 



get, an acquired skill like 
learning to speak Spanish. 
Developing intuition de- 
pends less on adding new 
material to your mind than 
on removing material that is 
already there but no longer 

DREAM WORK: One way of 
removing obstacles— "house- 
pleaning" the subcon- 
scious — is to interpret your 
dreams. Like Jung, Kautz 
sees dreams as a source of 
intuitive knowledge and he 
suggests keeping a note- 
book by your bed to record 
your dreams and become fa- . 
miliar with the symbols and 
messages of your subcon- 
scious world. Read books 
on dream theory. Take a 
dream workshop. 
PALACE OF MEMORIES: 
Most people don't try to "re- 
member" unless they're 
forced to recall a' memory. . 
When people forget where 
they've, put the keys or 



ess of how intuitive informa- 
tion is received. 
REACH OUT AND TOUCH: 
You've probably picked up 
the phone and 'known who 
is at the other end of the 
line, Don't wait for those 
moments- haphazardarly. 
When the phone rings, relax 
and tell yourself who is call- 
ing. The more you do this, 
the more comfortable- you'll 
be with unlocking. your intu- 
itive capabilities. 




with the other senses- 
taste, sight, and touch. Fo- 
cusing on each of the five 
senses helps re-orient: the. 
way you perceive reafity 
and heightens receptivity. 
BE HERE NOW: One of the 
best ways to "lubricate" in- 
tuitive channels is through 
the practice of meditation. 
There are a wide range of 
meditative, practices and- no 
one "right way" to meditate. '-. 
If you don't have time to 
investigate the different 
forms, try spending five min- 
utes a day sitting quietly. Let. 
your thoughts come and go, ; 
observing them as if you 
were watching a movie. 
Don't "attach" yourself to 
any one particular thought 
or thoughts. 

OBJET TROUVE: Take an, ev- 
eryday item like a coffee- 
cup, safety pin, or computer 
disk. On a piece of paper, 
write down a question such 
as, What is the purpose of 



—WHEN DEVELOPING INTUITION, THE GOAL IS TO CREATE WAYS TO ALLOW 
INFORMATION TO FLOW FROM THE SUPER CONSCIOUS TO THE CONSCIOUS.?? 



ences. What Kautz calls the 
super conscious mind is a 
universal reservoir of knowl- 
edge transcending time and 
space. When developing in- 
tuition, the. goal is to create 
ways to allow information to 
flow from' the super con- 
scious to the conscious. To 
tap into the reservoir, try the 
following exercises: 
MINDSET: Thmk of leaning 
as-an acquisitive process,, 
something you go out and 



when they can't- remember 
someone's name, they util- 
ize short-term memory, but 
usually ignore what's been 
stored in the memory barik^- 
all the experiences of the 
past. Try remembering a spe- 
cific time in your childhood. 
Relive the day, the color of 
the sky, the smells, what peo- 
ple saids how they acted, 
how you felt. Practice this ex- 
ercise daily. How people re- 
member is similar to the proc- 



SENSORIUM: Sit quietly 
and tune into what's going 
on around you at the mo- 
ment: A door shuts down 
the hall, a car horn honks, a 
dOg barks; smell the aroma 
of fresh-ground coffee 
beans; notice the waff of. 
Chanel as the. boss passes 
your office. This exercise 
bring:-; what was once back- 
ground information forward- 
info your conscidus mind. 
Perform the same exercise 



my life? or, How' can .1 get 
along better with my co-work- 
ers? Look at the object— its. 
shape, color, size— and lis- 
ten to what it tells -you. 
What does its shape- "say" 
to your question? Does the 
object's Junction parallel an 
attitude in your -life? This' is 
an excellent exercise in think- 
ing' metaphorically and a 
good way of getting used to 
the symbolical language of 
the super conscious. 



It's simple to see why Kautz and ex- 
pert intuitives like Nunn work well togeth- 
er. Nunn is as non-New Age and prag- 
matic as Kautz. Before getting involved 
professionally in intuitive work — an ar- 
ea he had studied on the side for over 
a decade— Nunn had an equally 
"straight" career both as a corporate con- 
sultant to manufacturing companies 
and as the head of two start-up com- 
panies in the South. Semi-retired and 
in his mid fifties, Nunn now lives on a 
10,000-acre ranch in northern Califor- 
nia near the Oregon border where he 
rides motorcycles and raises cattle. 

44 OMNI 



Like Kautz, he has little regard for New 
Age jargon and social excess. 

From corporate America's point of 
view, Nunn represents the respectable 
side of CAI. He accesses information 
and talks with ease about budgets and 
strategic plans. Not only does Nunn 
speak the language of business, but he 
dresses the part as well — details 
which are very important to business 
people in the Far East. "I wear a suit 
and carry a briefcase," Nunn says. "I 
don't use a crystal and I don't wear 
beads. I never use what might be con- 
sidered New Age jargon. For most busi- 



ness executives, here and abroad, 
that kind of talk is a turnoff." 

Other CAI expert intuitives, however, 
are trance channels who summon 
forth entities — reputedly from another di- 
mension—with exotic names like Etheri- 
on, Hilarion, and Ecton. "No entity 
talks through me," Nunn says. "I don't 
channel. I simply take a few moments 
to become quiet and the information 
comes to me." 

That Kautz, a former SRI scientist, util- 
izes trance channeling to access what 
he calls intuitive information upsets a 
host of individuals, from his less-open- 



INTUITION QUOTIENT: A TEST 



■ . . ;.■.;....■.. .... . . 

■.■::.■..■ . ■ . 

■ ' 

■■.:.:■ |jp O^k-ls ;fy::A^-V.\\- 
' )H <j 

n-v,v if|fjfi|| i^|j|§|!fj ■.;. 
yoanlfs.: Three .Sv*vs of ques- 
tions,. ■ d%i£;'ned: :fo.y : Bill.' 

i ierrtei :■■ 

':.■:, : ■■ i •■■■■ i 

■ ■ ■.. ■ ■■ ■'. ■ ■ ■ ■■■ ■. ■ 

,e tne test, 

■ . ■ .■■.■■ ■. ■■■■.: 

■ . ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ -■■ 
went ;i- n e»i 
■,. 
lions, turn to page 50.) : 

•LMtND MATTERS 

The True or- False state- 
ments (1-11).' test your 

■vii ■■■ mi-.bcij 
tion operates : 
1. intuition is a relatively 
rare ability which a few gift- 

■ ■ : 
12a {True or False) 
: . ; 2. Vtbmen have a greater ca- 
caciiy ■'.■.■ ■■ ; 

False) 

3. Children are highly intui- 

4 or 5. (True or False) 

4. The major roadblocks to 

■■ " . . . ■ ,:...■ . ■ ■ 

ity.are due to societal be- 
ir False} -"A A 
'5. Intuition is. the menial ca- 
pacity responsible for psy^ 
or A: performance. (True or 
False) 

6.- You cannot harm others 
vvlir A:- :Ao;n a=: jn ..-c-y ob- 
tain through intuition. (Tfue. 
or False) 



7: Pea; ■■. . 
. rend to.'b.e more intuitive, 
(True or False) . 

B ■. ... ■ 

■ ■..:■■■. 

.■.,,.. 
A>-;;n-o( i-alss) ./A 

' ! , , ■ 
■/. 
channels usually obtain 

■■ ■ .: 
lion when m a trance or un- 
conscious state, (True or 
.False) 
10.- Many people experi- 

■ ■„■■.■■.■..;.! . ■■ ■ 
physical. (True or False) 
11.. Alcohol impede;-; the- 

.flow of intuitive .information;'' ] 
(True or False) 

11 HEART MATTERS 

■ . ■ ■■..■. 
uations in which you ec-uld- ' 

: ■■■■■. 
■■ . .. .■■■■. ■ ■■ 
■:in each circumstance.-' ' 

12. When She doorbell or 
phone rings unexpectedly, 
do you'. know wnn 

■ ! i . ■ ■ . 
times; D; Frequently -A 

13. Do you .ever dre'arh ■ 
about unusuai "events, 
which actually occur .later? ■ 
A. Never; B. Rarely; C. Some- 
times; D. Frequently; ■; .. 

'.14. When you meeAsorrie-'' 
one after talking with them ■■■ 
on ihe telephone does 
~^:- : ^:^C;; .-: \r^'^ it' Qui 
i. • r-p, iecuf-ne evad oown . 

■ ■■.. ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■. . ■ 

■ lev ■ ., ■ 
times; D. Frequently' 

15, Have you ever, served i 



cornsjiicViieii p'ObiAn ;■ A, 
totind out later tha'.-yfluArea- ' 
■■'!,■,.,; ,\, < ;.■■.■.■: ;■■ 
■: ■ ..■ ■ 

Never: 
times; D. Frequently 
:,. ■■■.;■■ ;.■..■ ■.'■<■ '.v , i. ; . 
■ ■■■ - 

■ ■ ■ ■■ ■,■:!;. ;,:■■: 
then- ./eceived 3 iesr-ei or 
phone call from that pet- 
son? A.' Never; B.. Rarely; 

■■■■.■ 
17. When you have made 
an error in judgment, have 
you ever, looked back and 
: oc o \ue:i an inner impres- 
sion or. sign that would 
- prror if 
only yo:.;. fi id -hooded :?? 
■■ ■ ■ . ■■■..■■■ 
tiiV!!')-:; i i i-requeniiy 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ .■■.■.■■■■ 

■ a to be ac 
■ ■ . I ■■ ■ 
■■ i lime's; !.'■ 



;:!. GO^RAufS-IKi-ARMS 
Although every individual is 

;;■■■■. ■■ ■ 

tain personality traits, attA 

ndh; ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ 

■■ ■■ . :■■■■■ ipment 

of intuitive ' abilities and 

skills; ^Questions 19-30 

inyour life to those d highly 
itrtuitiVB-peo-pie 
A). DoydiAplay amusical in- 
■ ■■ ■ ■ :-.- 

■■■■:.■■■ 
A. iv 33 d child B Oc 

mt'fy' 
'20.' Are' you currently setf- 
■ . ■ ■ ■ .■;■. 

2l. Ado's your work involve 
iis:bf any sort? (For 



§pss i .mjrs-.-;, 

.es; a'uto'.medh'anic's,; invest- 
ment ana'ivsfe) A.: Yes; : 8. 
N-jAC. Occasionally.-, .■ -'a 

■ ■ : ■ . ■ .. . 

-or. Ao'--worf<ers describe, you 

1 r A Fr- 

quenfty;. S: : Sometimes;' 

'■1 ■ ■ u 1 -, 
■23. A; work; are ycamore.df 
■ ■ ' 

A ;.■,.■■ :■■ 

C CoiTibffv-Liw.-n 0! both 
24. How important, is it for 
■ ■ ■ 

A. Very .important:. B'. Some-' 
■A-Trs; !:r;oori.ant; C. No! that 
::.;■.■:! in; 

2b. Did you have an imag- 
inary 
rh-d''.-,. 

2G. Do you worry about be- 
ing the 'victim of a/crime? 

■ ■ 

itliy p Never- ' : 
27. How many hours is the 

.■ ■ your 

More 
than' 5 hours; B. Between 3 
and 5 hours; C. Between 1 
and. 3 hours; D. Less than t 
hour or never 

2S A-o you comfortable coal- 
ing with metaphor or simile? 
For' instance, do you score. 

■'.!!■ :;■■ ■ ■. \i. i: 

of aptitude tests or readily 
understand 'the' symbols in 
a. poem'' A. Yes; 8. No . 

29. Do you ever. feei. thai 
there just isn't "enough 
time im'ihe day?. 1 '' A. Often; 

B, Ocoasionaily; C. Rarely; 
D^ Never ' 

30. Are you- currently in- A; 
vpived in .an intimate rela- 
tionship? A. Yes-; 3. No 



minded fellow scientists to evangelical 
Christians who see trance channeling 
as a Trojan Horse for the demonic. How 
Kautz defines intuition, how he gathers 
intuitive information, and what he rep- 
resents—a scientist working in the 
realm of the nonrational — invariably 
seem to provoke curiosity, criticism, 
and, at times, derision. 

But CAI hasn't suffered for clients. 
Hundreds of people — many of whom 
are Japanese— happily pay CAI intui- 
tives to answer questions such as, 
Where should we allocate our research 
and development dollars? Prices for ser- 

46 OMNI 



vices vary. Private counseling sessions 
cost $200. Half-day corporate sessions 
cost $600. This year, CAI will begin to 
offer services in Europe. Co-written 
with Melanie Branon, Kautz's first 
book, Channeling: The Intuitive Connec- 
tion, has been translated into French, 
German, and Italian. In fact, the 
French translator became so interested 
in Kautz's work that he's running CAI's 
operation in France. 

Kautz's intuitive life began very inno- 
cently. In the early seventies while work- 
ing at SRI, Kautz became increasingly 
interested in the ways human beings ac- 



quire knowledge. Where do ideas 
come from? How do people discover 
something new or find a solution to a 
vexing problem? These questions be- 
came increasingly important to him as 
a scientist working on complex comput- 
er-related problems. His wife, a social 
worker, steered him toward books and 
thinkers who over the centuries ad- 
dressed the issue. 

"I was surprised to find out that many 
bright ideas were not the result of a lot 
of rational thinking and that scientists 
who made great breakthroughs usual- 
ly got their crucial ideas in a flash," 

ON PAGE 78 



INTUITION QUOTIENT: ANSWERS 



I: MIND MATTERS 

1 . False. Intuition is a univer- 
sal human capacity and not 
the gift of a few privileged 
people. 

2. False. Both men and wom- 
en have the same capacity 
for intuition. Women tradition- 
ally have been more open to 
Using their intuition.- 

3. True. Children typically be- 
have very intuitively in their ear- 

. ly years, but their intu.tition 
"goes into hiding" and stops 
developing when adults do 
not accept their early demon- ■ 
strations of intuitive knowing. 

4. False. The major obstacles 
■to intuition are due to person-- . 
al belief systems, ■ 

5. True. Intuition-is the mental 
process which underlays 

''. many kinds of exceptional 
behavior including- psychic 
performance. 

6. False. Intuitive capacity is 
benign, but just as with any 
powerful ability, individuals 
vary in how they choose to 



■/:■:■■—■ ihis; Jiwi-'i ' ; :^: ; -- -■ es- 
sential to the development of 
inn: i iive skills. 5-7 correct an- 
swers'; Your potential is 
strong, but probably under- 
developed. If you are inter- 
ested in learning more about 
how intuition functions, you 
may wish to read about- the top- 
ic- or enroll in an intuition 
class. 0-4 correct answers: 
You may be resisting the no- 
tion of intuition and relying 
too heavily on your rational 
faculty. 

II. HEART MATTERS 

For questions 12-18, the follow- 
ing scores apply: 

A. Never = 

B. Rarely = 1 

C. Sometimes = 3- 

D. Frequently = 5. 

12.. Knowing who is at the 

door or on the phone is. a 

good indicator of intuition at 

work. 

13. Although dreams are. of - 



pie can be partially attributed 
to intuition and is a sign of intui- 
tive potential. 

SCORE: 26-30: Your intuitive 
ability is unusually sirong. 
Most skilled psychics and 
channels have abilities like 
yours. You might want to con- 
sider developing them further 
under the personal direction 
of an experienced teacher. 
15-24: Your intuitive skills are 
above average. O-t-4: Al- 
though it may seem that in- 
tuition is not working in your 
life, it is. more likely that it is 
functioning "behind the 
scenes" and you are simply 
not aware of it. Pay attention 
to potential opportunities for 
intuition to function freely. For 
example, when the doorbell 
or telephone rings, or when 
you're talking with someone 
new on the phone, listen care- 
fully to yoQr first impressions 
and notice how you (eel 
when your first guesses turn 



ally more intuitive. 

24. A, 8 points; B..4 points; 
C. 1 point. If someone values 
time alone, it's a good indi- 
cation that he is comforiable 
in the quiet of his own mind 
and more receptive to inner 
knowing. , 

25. A, Five points; B, 
points. Adults who exhibit 
strong intuitive skills have 
sometimes had imaginary play- 
mates as childreh. 

26. A, points; B.-2 points; 
C. 5 points; 0", 8 points. Fear 
{of any kind) is the. strongest 
block to the flow of intuitive 
understanding; 

27. A.,0 points; B.- 1 points; 
C. 3 points: D. 5 points,. 
Those who rely heavily on out- 
side stimulation such as tele- 
vision tend to be less intuitive. 

28. A. 5 points; B. points, in- 
tuitive communication is often 
symbolic in nature resembling 
the language of metaphor. 

29. A. points; 8. 1 points; 



••ALTHOUGH IT MAY SEEM THAT INTUITION IS NOT WORKING IN YOUR 
LIFE, IT IS MORE LIKELY THAT IT IS FUNCTIONING 'BEHIND THE SCENES'.** 



use intuitive knowledge. 
7. True. As individuals be- 
come senile, rational faculties 

'often deteriorate, allowing 
bursts of intuitive knowledge 

-to come forth. 
8.- True. Thinking is .a complex 
process which engages all as- 
pects of human conscious- 
ness to varying degrees. 

9. False. The favored state of 
consciousness varies from 
one intuitive to another. Many 
excellent intuitives. work best 
when they are fully conscious. 

10. True. Intuitive knowledge 
in the form of a physical sen- 
sation is very common. 
Some people call it gut feel- 
ing. The. scientific term is kin- 
esthetic awareness. 

11. True and False. Although 
alcohol temporarily softens 
the barrier that impedes the 

: Tlowof intuitive knowledge, it 
also deadens awareness so 
that accuracy and communi- 
cability are weakened. 
SCORE 8-11 correct answers: 
You have an excellent under- 



ten clouded with confusing 
symbols, they can be a 
strong intuitive channel for any- 
one willing to work with them. 
In particular, dreams are one 
of the best means for receiv- 
ing precognitive knowledge. 

14. To- picture someone 
you've only spoken with but 
have not yet met means- you 
are intuitive. 

15. Thinking is a combination 
of reasoning and Intuition. 
When a rational approach to 
solving a problem fail's, intu- 
ition often "pops" through con- 
sciousness and provides an 
answer— often for the wrong 
reasons. 

16. Intuition sometimes oper- 
ates beyond the constraints of 
time and space. Thinking of 
someone and then hearing 
from them is a sign of intuition 
at play. 

17. The innner mind. always 
supplies intuitive signals to 
guide us toward good deci- 
sions obtained mainly by in- 
tuitive means. 



out to be correct. 

III. COMRAOES-iN-ARMS 
Questions 19-30 are scored 
individually. 

19. A. 5 points; B. 3 points; 
C, points. Musical ability in-. 
dicates a predisposition for 
symbolic, non-verbal commu- 
nication which has much- in 
common with the way intuition 
typically manifests. 

20. A, 3 points; B. points. 
Studies have shown that peo- 
ple with an entrepreneurial 
bent tend to be more intuitive. 

21. A. 8 points; B. 4 points; 
C. points. Studies indicate 
that people who perform diag- 
nostic procedures as part of 
their work tend to be- intuitive, 
.22. A. 5 points; B: 3 points; C. 
points. Listening to others— 
and to yourself— is one of the 
most important aspects of lis- 
tening tointuitive information. 
23. A. points; B, 2 points; 
C. 4 points. Good leaders 
tend to be more self-reliant 
and trusting of their own "in- 



C. 3 points; D. 5 points. If 
you're too busy or harried, it's 
probably a -Sign that you are 
relying on outside forces to pro- 
vide order and meaning to 
your life. This attitude is a.hin- 
drance to the clear flow of- in- 
tuitive knowledge. 
30. A. 5 points; B. points.. 
Studies show that the most 
successful relationships are 
those : in which there is a 
clear and honest bond of com- 
munication: These same char- 
acteristics are essential if in- 
tuition is to manifest, 
SCORE: 50-65; You're in 
good company with those 
who are highly intuitive. Wheth- 
er you are aware of it or not, 
intuition plays, an important 
role your life. 30-49: Certain as- 
pects of your lite and person- 
ality indicate thai you have 
strong intuitive potential. 
0-29: Don't despair. You may 
be your own type or in your 
own category, not following 
the statistical patterns of 
others. 



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«:r etimes dream that a mitlion 
yf^rs from now an alien starship- 
discovers our solar system and 
*'n cib it deserted. What happened 
:o us' J No one knows. We may 
i-jvo left for far stars, taken up 
:ho ife of mobile habitats, orfrans- 
iormed ourselves through biotech- 
niMiij es into a different species. 
Alii'-i explorers take an inventory 
oi oi.: planet and find vast librar- 
■cs ';:ied with intellectual- and ar- 
i s:ic artifacts, great decaying 
<r:h tectures of stone, steel, bueky- 
oa '■?, music, and thought. 

Wnat do they think of it all? 
;--vi^speare baffles their exopsy- 
c'ncrtogy; our science seems primi- 
tive out perhaps they see some 
crom se in relativity, quantum me- 
cnsrics, and chaos theories. Final- 
i, ike to imagine, they fm$ 
vvI'h: is to them the supreme arti- 
:;ic! Godel's proof. It speaks to 
ihe-r as nothing else can. Why? 

ir. f931 Kurt Godel published 
a oroof that claimed to reveal the 
kind uf universe we inhabit. Sur- 
prisingly, this proof did not in--, 
volve either an observation or an 
oxoe'iment in the usual sense. In- 
stead, it harked back to the an- 
cisnt uhifosophical notions of a pri- 
or: reasoning Jo the Platonic idea' 
•\}r,\ we might attain knowledge of 
reality through the powers of 
i -nrc alone, rather than through 
a nosteriori methods involving ob- 
r-fc'witions, measurements, and. 
conirofled physical experiments.' 
N>; ottier example of human 
[height is as far-reaching as 
3*" del's proof, yet the consequenc- 
■ -- ;.■ if for our understanding of 
the urivorsc and *h^ human 
virsd 2'C 'arely r. scunsiici outside 
of technical ;r.sjrr;ils and even 



there the reach oi Godel's proof 
into law, economics, religion, the 
sciences, how we- view history, 
.and how we should .'judge 
■ schemes for improving our lot, is 
■not explored, 

in Mind. Tools (Houghton Mif- 
flin, 1987),. writer and mathemati- ' 
cian Rudy Rucker points out that 
"above afl, Godel's theorem 
.shows that human thought is ■ 
more complex and less mechan- 
ical than anyone had ever be- 
lieved, but after the initial flurry of 
excitement in the 1930s, the re- 
sult ossified into a piece of tech- 
nical mathematics . . , and be- 
came the private property of the 
mathematical logic establish- 
ment, and many 'of these academ- 
ics were contemptuous of any sug- 
gestion that the theorem could 
have something to dowiththe re- 
' al world."- Interest in the philosophi- 
cal consequences of Godel's the- 
orem was finally "rekindled in 
1961 when Oxford philosopher J. 
Anthony Lucas wrote an incorrect 
but very important paper arguing 




Mathematician 
Kurt Godot 
may have 
f outlet a proof 
for the way Hie 
universe 
works. Science' 
fief Ion writer 
George 
Zebrowslcl 
takes a 

moving took at 
what belief 
in that proof 
entails. 



LIFE 

IN GODEL'S 

UNIVERSE: 

MAPS 

ALL THE 

WAY 



BY GtORGE ZEBROWSKI • MINTING BY GIORGIO BE CHIRICO 



'■■<■•■ Goad's :hc^'s.'in ysove.' t^at "~a 
chinas canrc; think ' 

today; most educated people have 
l-c.ird of relativity and 'quantum theory. 
■ovie sis. r 3 tote around copies of 
S'ept"en Hawking's book on cosmolo- 
gy Rut about Godel's- proof, despite 
D::i,;;las Hofstadter's Godel, Escher, 
Brier. (Basic, 1979; Random House, 
'983). the- common- comment is, 
'Jicn the prove that we can't know ev- 
e.'y'mr-g? Well, we all know that!" 

Th;3 is just not good enough, If it 
v/e'e otherwise, he might have shown 
l-i.-ii we live in a universe in which we 
cci, li solve all problems and learn- ev- 
cryi^ing. So the proof is far from trivial 
i J i: 'Oils' us that we can't do this, ever, 
3rd also implies that we can't know ev- 
erything because the universe is infinite; 
■«vk eciiid exhaust a finite universe, but 
■:<)* a.-i infinite one that has always ex-- 
;Glcc '"i -.some form and, like our idea of 
Gcc. requires no creation. . 

Inere is a world of difference be- 
twefe-i saying, "We all know that we 
can't know everything," and giving a 
proo?' that ends all doubt. The formal 
orocl demonstrates that any sufficient- 



Kwrt Gedel 



the tint Albert 
Einstein 
Award for 
achieve- 
ment in the 
natural 
sciences from 
Einstein 
himself. (1951) 



su' | i[;'«n;.y ricn 5y:;lem car' be shown 
:-.- be oper-erdec ihc hunari mind a 
sucn i: syntiiv 

In the years since Godel made' his 
proof, examples of undecidable math- 
ematical statements have been found. 
'A physical indeterminism involving 
quantum- gravity, in. keeping with 
Godel's incompleteness theorem, was 
put forward in the 1980s. John von Neu- 
mann, a great ""sthematician himself, 
wrote that "Godel's achievement in mod- 
ern logic is. singular and monumen- 
tal ... a landmark which will remain vis- 
ible far in space and time." 

But given the rigorous truth ex- 
pressed in Gddei's proof, what does it 
mean for how we should regard the uni- 
verse, and. what does it say for how hu- 
man affairs should be arranged? Is 
Godel's proof about us or the physical 
universe? Would Godel's proof be just 
as binding on an alien civilization as it 
is on us? Logical and mathematical 
truths are presumably universal. Laws 
that apply in one corner of the universe 
are likely-to apply in others. Notations! 
systems might differ from., ours, but 
they would express the same truths. 




ly nci deductive system —arithmetic, for 
example —will generate statements 
"■..it ax-meaningful but unprovable, one 
.vsy '/ the other, within the system. Math- 
uir^iics, or any sufficiently developed 
sys - ;;— . cannot ever be complete. The 
ctoo' '?. binding, because to deny the 
c-'inc Msion puts you in the position of 
i-yicc 'o have it both ways. The conclu- 
sion > : ; true if it's false and false if it's 
■ i we can clearly see that the un- 
ceciOaole conclusion is true because 
i: i< p.'operly derived. Rucker has de- 
.vcnt.ee this fear as akin to finding a way 
to stand on one's own shoulders. Any 



However, it has been claimed i-ia* 
Godel's proof is a truth about systems 
of thought, not about the universe : s 
about maps, and not about the territory 
they represent. But this is what Godel 
set out to prove — that the actual terri- 
tory will always transcend the map. 

Mathematics lias always shown a cu- 
rious ability to be applicable tonature, . 
and this may express a deep link .be- 
tween our minds and nature. We are the 
universe speaking out, a part of nature, 
so ii is rot surer-sing that our systems 
of logic and mathematics sing. in tune 
with nature. Godel himself believed 



••15 GODEL'S PROOF ABOUT US OR THE PHYSICAL UNl¥ift£E? 
WOULD IT BIND AN ALIEN CIVILIZATION AS IT DOES US?**; 



that mathematical objects have as 
much reality as those we perceive with 
our senses. Rucker points out that it 
was typical of Godel to use mathemat- 
ical procedures to prove truths about 
the objective world. He recognized no 
obstacles to being able to do this, pro- 
vided it was done as rigorously as we 
do a physical experiment. We cannot 
simply imagine what we please and 
have it be true. 

Some critics have argued that there 
is an unbridgeable gulf between lan- 
guage and reality. But if this is so, then 
no amount of language cari decide the 
nature of the relationship, or even de- 
cide that there is a gulf at all — but we 
have many reasons to think that the 
gulf is bridgeable, because we do it 
quite often. 

If what 'we do rigorously in our 
minds with systems of mathematics and 
logic can't help being connected with 
the territory outside, then Godel's 
proof is also about nature. The same lim- 
its that it sets for human reason and po- 
tential for knowledge it also expresses 
about the universe. And the kind of uni- 
verse that Godel's proof suggests is the 
one put forward by current cosmologi- 
cal modeling: an open-ended, infinite, 
eternal existence, requiring no begin- 
ning, in which our knowledge may be- 



come significant c-no, oxis'isive but nev- 
er complete. The relationship between 
Godel's theorem and the universe out- 
side our minds may be best suggest- 
ed by asking the question, In what 
kind of universe is Godel's theorem 
true? And the answer is, not a clock- 
work universe. 

But perhaps outside of our psychol- 
ogy nature is a compete determinism, 
but we can't see it. We are finite, falli- 
bly deductive beings who experience 
time, so for us events seem unpredict- 
able but usually explainable after the 
fact. Finite beings experience a softer 
determinism by wearing the blinders of 
time inside a nature that may be com- 
plete, deterministic, and timeless. 

Unpredictable things happen to finite 
beings. In the crime film classic 7??e As- 
phalt Jungle, Doc, the supremely ration- 
al criminal, expressed wonder at how 
the sleight of hand that is "chance" ru- 
ined his heist plan. He is deeply wed- 
ded io deductive reason, He admits mis- 
judging a man who double-crosses 
him, but does not see how he could not 
have predicted alarms going off at ran- 
dom or a gun being dropped, firing and 
wounding one of his partners. If Doc 
had known that he lived in Godel's uni- 
verse, he would not have believed that 
he could plan everything in advance. 



Living in Godel's universe means; 

Raising kids is a .potentially endless 
job. The same will be true of raising artifi- 
cial intelligences, but G&del's theorem 
will find application in our construction 
of more richly endowed computers 
that would be like human minds — 
continuous rather than step-by-step 
clockworks. 

In law there will always be cases that 
escape the written code, no matter how 
often It is revised, Legal practice ap- 
pears to know that it operates in 
Godel's universe, because judges ap- 
ply laws with the help of examples set 
by precedent — to fit laws'to specific cas- 
es and recognize the difference be- 
tween the letter and spirit of a law. A 
perfect fit is not expected, which rec- 
ognizes the logical fallacy of "perfec- 
tion or nothing," Yet a recent civil- 
rights bill, whose language was repeat- 
edly revised by Democrats to make it 
acceptable by seeking to avoid racial 
quotas in hiring was likened (in uncon- 
scious recognition of Godel's theorem) 
to holding an ever-increasing number 
of marbles in one hand — with some al- 
ways falling out. There was no way to 
draft a perfect law that would avoid quo- 
la hiring, since some employers would 




engage in such hiring to avoid the 
charge of racism. (Some critics 
charged that this "perfection or nothing" 
demand was simply a way to have no 
law at all.) The more precise the draft- 
ing, the more it fails to cover cases; too 
loose, it compels nothing constructive. 
Law cannot ever be more than "good 
enough" in Godel's universe. 

In economics we've had positive num- 
ber accounting, negative (deficit) ac- 
counting, and now we have (following 
the lead of mathematical thought) imag- 
inary number accounting (credit), 
which is not the same as deficit account- 
ing, because it became necessary to 
mirror the true value of humankind's var- 
ied capacity for work, which is in keep- 
ing with the nature of Godel's universe. 
We've had inefficiency and dishonesty 
in positive-negative number accounting, 
as well as in imaginary, but the gains 
are too great to forego this open-end- 
ed system of growth for the rigidities of 
the past, which would put too low a ceil- 
ing on human aspirations. 

Karl Popper's "falsifiability" criterion, 
in which a positive proof of something 
is not possible because the number of 
cases to be tested is infinite, dovetails 
with Godel's proof of incompleteness. 



Popper showed that if something can 
be false (how it might be untrue must 
at least be imaginable), then it has a 
chance of being true — the best candi- 
date possible for truth in Godel's uni- 
verse, even though it will never be ab 
solutely proved. An unfalsifiable candi 
date, however, can be ruled out, be- 
cause it is consistent' with all evidence 
and can never be disproved, while a fal- 
sifiable idea may continue to resisl 
while remaining, in principle, falsifiable. 
In Godel's universe, an unfalsifiable 
idea is complete. Nothing can ever 
count against it. A trivial example; Lit- 
tle green men live in all refrigerators, but 
they disappear when the door is 
opened. Another example is a religious 
dogma of any kind, held on faith. Both 
of these are what Popper calls "rein- 
forced dogmas," because they have a 
built-in resistance to any kind of test; 
they contain as part of the idea an in- 
junction against questioning them. Pop- 
per's "falsifiability" criterion for truth can 
only work in Godel's open universe. 

Dogmas are the enemies of Godel's 
universe because they attempt to end 
all discussions and tests of truth; they 
are totalitarian viruses for the mind, pre- 
venting the creative growth that 
Godel's proof implies is possible. 
Godel's universe is not totalitarian, yet 




it does not deny our need for order and 
explanation. Its liberating incomplete- 
ness suggests that we can, in time, 
achieve our dreams; vast if not final 
knowledge; ongoing civilization; per- 
haps even endless life and a redemp- 
tion of the past. It only asks us to reen- 
act all forms of completeness, or clo- 
sure, which is totalitarian (clockwork 
deductive); ail forms of dogma, control, 
and domination — all impulses to com- 
pleteness and certainty; and it asks us 
to appreciate the practical value of 
imperfection, serendipity, wildness. 
Completeness is a form of death; wild- 
ness is a form of fertility, growth. 

"Like clockwork," is an ideal that is 
often admired, but we must fear ils re- 
alization, for the closer we approach it, 
the more our thoughts and actions 
tend toward rigidity. In a clockwork uni- 
verse, we could have exhaustive reci- 
pes for becoming a poet or a scientist, 
and they would work every time. 

James Gleick's book Chaos; Making 
a New Science (Penguin, 1987) is 
filled with the kinds of descriptions and 
insights that can be expected of 
Godel's universe: 

"The vogue for geometrical architecture 
and painting came and went. Architects 
no longer care to build blockish sky- 
scrapers like the Seagram Building in 
New York, once much hailed and cop- 
ied. To Mandelbrot and his followers, 
the reason is clear: Simple shapes are 
inhuman. They fail to resonate with the 
way nature organizes itself or with the 
way human perception sees the world. 
In the words of Gert Eilenberger, a Ger- 
man physicist who took up nonlinear sci- 
ence after specializing in superconduc- 
tivity: 'Why is it that the silhouette of a 
storm-bent, leafless tree against an eve- 
ning sky in winter is perceived as beau- 
tiful, but the corresponding silhouette of 
any multipurpose university building 
is not, in spite of all the efforts of the 
architect? The answer seems to me, 
even if somewhat speculative, to follow 
from the new insights into dynamical 
systems. Our feeling for beauty is in- 
spired by the harmonious arrangement 
of order and disorder as it occurs in nat- 
ural objects— in clouds, trees, mountain 
ranges, or snow crystals. The shapes 
of all these are dynamical processes, 
jelled into physical forms, and particular 
combinations of order and disorder are 
typical for them.' " 

And Gleick concludes: 

"Appreciating the harmonious structure 
of any architecture is one thing; ad- 
miring the wildness of nature is quite an- 
other. In terms of aesthetic values, the 

CCNTlr.' w ED0NPAGEa4 



Fiction 



Ship Full Of Jews 



Cristoforo 
could hear 
the moaning 
from steerage, the 
Chasids were chant- 
ing again, moaning and 
raving in their strange and 
steeped tongue, the sounds of 
the Hebrew emerging cloudily 
from the deck of the Pinta, filling him 
HHf with some mixture of dread and regard, religiosity and hope, the swells and pitching of the' 
Wjr barren seas reminding him of the essential perilousness of his journey. Images of spices, fra-' 
W grant bouquets from the sullen and mysterious East rose in his nostrils, taunting thoughts of the 
new and deadly continent opening up before him possessed him with a kind of graciousness. The 
sounds of the Chasids were overwhelming. Sometimes they would pray for hours, unstopping, 
one choir beginning when another paused, filling the moist air with imprecations and song, at 
other times they were silent, pitching and rolling in the deck, the queasiness of their condi- 
tion doubtless the origin of this strange and necessary silence. Cristoforo did not under- 
stand any of it. $ Of course the Chasids were not to understand, they were to trans- 
port. Isabella had pointed this out to him. "They are none of your concern," she 
had said. "They are being deported, will keep to themselves under guard, will 
pray and rave in their strange way but have nothing to do with your journey." 
The excitable Queen had gazed at him, her eyes full and penetrating in the 
darkness. There was something very special between her and Cristoforo; , 
that had been his intimation from the start but of course under Ferdinand's cru- 
el gaze and with the happenstance of the Inquisition, it was impossible to bring 
this strange and stunned accord to any kind of realization. Cristoforo was a man of 
his time, his mind was seized by the fragrance of spices, dreams of India, dreams of 
fervent Indians clustering about him, proffering their strange and wistful aphrodisiacs, their 
eyes round with promise. But with all of that, with thoughts of aphrodisiacs and Indians, his 
imagination soared clear and pristine beyond this, somewhere far beyond fantasy. He had an 

(assignment; the Chasids were only the most marginal part of this. Standing on the deck, swaying 
.finding purchase on the thin and decaying boards of this wretched ship which was, his great 
B. friend Isabella had insisted, the very best available, Cristoforo pondered his fate, considered^ 
Wit. his condition, swung keen and penetrating gaze toward India, the New World, the mysteri- M. 
ous aphrodisiac land tucked beyond 
the dip of the great horizon. San- 
ta Maria, Cristoforo murmured 
and did not know if he was 
invoking that mother of 
passage or repeating 
the name of his 
third and most 
eccentric ship, 
filled with 



By Barry IS. Malzberg 
Illustration By Ratal Olbinski 




roustabouts and assassins also deport- 
ed, a gang so cruel that he had taken 
Ferdinand's instruction not to deal with 
that ship at all, even in his capacity as 
overseer. "You will be much better, my 
son," Ferdinand had said kindly, "stay- 
ing with your crew and examining the 
route to India with compass and disjunc- 
tion, allowing the guards to control that 
hostile ship." Cristoforo had shrugged. 
Who was he to argue with Ferdinand? 
A king's reputation stood between him 
and all desire; Cristoforo lusted hope- 
lessly for the queen but all proportion 
was necessary within the arc of condi- 
tion. Sometimes his thoughts were met- 
aphysical, sometimes they were prac- 
tical, and at all times the three ships 
rolled and sculled their way toward In- 
dia, henceforth to be known in his 
heart only as that aphrodisiacal New 
World. Abolish all desire, he thought, 
and the spices of desire would some- 
day be his. His? All of theirs, then. 

Excuse me, Master, his yeoman 
said, approaching with suitable humili- 
ty. Everyone knew of Cristoforo's spe- 
cial relationship with Isabella, also of his 
temper and the secret instructions 
from the queen which rumored the 
right to scuttle any who displeased. Be- 
hind lay the Inquisition, of course, only 
for Jews so far but who could indeed 



tell? Ahead lay the equally impondera- 
ble New World, but somewhere in the 
middle, Cristoforo presided and his 
word was terrible, his authority absolute. 

The rabbi has requested permission 
to speak to you. He asked me to carry 
this message — 

Rabbi? What rabbi? Cristoforo could 
feel his consciousness swim as he slow- 
ly reoriented himself to the possession 
of a steerage filled not only with chant- 
ing but with hierarchy; there was a lead- 
er or several leaders of the Chasids, 
yes, and they obtained not only the 
spiritual but the temporal title rebbe, cor- 
rupted by the idiomatic language of his 
day to this less forbidding form. Jesus 
had been rebbe too, Cristoforo noted. 
Cristoforo was no longer a religious 
man, no longer possessed by any vi- 
sion other than the spicy and nefarious 
East toward which they so perilously 
cruised, but he recalled from his child- 
hood pictures of the bearded Master 
who had of course emerged from the 
Pharisees of his day and had been put 
to torture and death for daring to rival 
them in popularity. Or was that the sto- 
ry? He was not sure; the Inquisition of 
course was a final settling of accounts 
for this ancient injustice, but Cristoforo, 
concerned with matters of the sea as 
well as certain entanglements on 



shore which even before Isabella had 
made his life colorful and difficult, had 
not paid much attention to this. 

Master, the yeoman said, I have 
brought the rabbi to the deck. He Is 
over there, demanding to see you — 

Cristoforo shrugged. A shrug 
seemed to possess him head to toe, 
front to back, through all the specious 
and yet solid aspects of his frame; he 
had been shrugging, he sometimes 
thought, all his life. Shrug for the mean- 
spirited Barcelona of his day which 
seemed obsessed with questions of rep- 
aration which could not concern a sim- 
ple Master of the seas. A shrug tor 
Isabella who, after all, was beyond him 
for all of her flirtatiousness and desira- 
bility and would have made much trou- 
ble in the possession, a trouble which 
he suspected she would have found no 
less titillating than the specter of his mur- 
der. Shrug for the Santa Maria and its 
decks full of felons who would be the 
first to grapple with the savages of the 
New Land if the savages were to show 
any hostile intention. Shrug for the jew- 
els and fragrances which Ferdinand 
had promised him if he were success- 
ful on this difficult mission. Shrug for 
this and shrug tor that, meet the tem- 
per of the world with a certain calculat- 
ed indifference and ignore the 

CONllNUi.DONPAGEBf 




IfUTERVIEUU 



KARY MULLIS 



He's been called "untamed genius," "inventor of the decades," 

and "sexist pig." His discovery has determined the future of molecular biology. 

And he has more amazing gene machines in the works 



PHOTOGRAPHS BY FRAN COLLIN 



It was a shock for the audi- 
ence, so soon after break- 
fast. The keynote speaker at 
"Nucleic Acids: New Fron- 
tiers," a San Diego confer- 
ence of the American Asso- 
ciation for Clinical Chemis- 
try, was giving his slide 
talk. Then, right after a sci- 
entific chart, there flashed 
on the huge screen a sharp- 
ly defined image of the 
speaker's ex-girlfriend clad 
only in a multicolored Man- 
delbrot fractal pattern, gen- 
erated by computer and pro- 
jected with considerable 
transparency onto her skin. 
As a nervous frisson rippled 
through the auditorium, the 
speaker Kary Mullis was un- 
abashed. "This is my home 
town, and I can do what I 
like!" he joked. Indeed; no 
one seemed to mind this 
and other examples of his 
"creativity." As a young wom- 
an chemist said afterwards, 
Mullis might be "a sexist 
pig," but his ideas were "so 
refreshing, I could have lis- 
tened to him all day." 

Among the more scien- 
tific goodies Mullis served 
up was a technique to filter 
DNA from blood in 15 minutes (the conventional 
process takes a day), a suggestion that the 
historic Avagadro number system for counting 
molecules be replaced by a common-sense 
Mullis measure of "things per microliter," and 
a novel explanation for how AIDS defeats the 
immune system. But beyond the scientific 
pyrotechnics, charm, and provocations, Mullis 
also had the enduring respect of everyone in 
the room for the singiehanded invention of 
PCR — polymerase chain reaction — the most 
powerful lab advance in molecular biology in 
a decade. 

PCR finds and multiplies tiny fragments of 
DNA millions of times in just hours. Picking out 
a few base pairs from normal DNA is like hunt- 
ing for a needle in a haystack. PCR detects the 
bit of DNA aimed for and keeps doubling it. 
After 30 exponential steps, you have a haystack 




M05T 

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INVENTION: 

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Reaction, 

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of a billion needles. The tech- 
nique has replaced clumsy 
recombinant DNA cloning 
with a fast and slick way to 
make as much specimen 
DNA as desired and has in- 
spired a burst of shortcuts 
in the still-vast project to de- 
code the human genome. 
Applications abound. In fo- 
rensics, PCR helps solve 
murders from degraded 
bloodstains and fathom mys- 
teries of disease from sam- 
ples as old as 40 years. It 
helps diagnose genetic prob- 
lems in human eggs and 
embryos, can detect the 
AIDS virus in blood before . 
antibodies develop, and 
may yield an early warning 
system for cancer. Archae- 
ologists and botanists can 
track evolution in musty spec- 
imens of dried leaves, skin, 
hair, feathers, and egg- 
shells. They line up mice car- 
casses and plot the history 
of the species by means of 
DNA variations that PCR de- 
tects. PCR has proven that 
a 40,000-year-old mammoth 
is the ancestor of the ele- 
phant, and it was used to 
analyze DNA in an 18-mil- 
lion-year-old magnolia leaf preserved in a 
peat bog. There are plans to use PCR to trace 
ships responsible for oil slicks and to analyze 
President Lincoln's bloodstains and bone frag- 
ments for genetic weaknesses. 

One problem with PCR is that it's so sensi- 
tive, the investigator's own hair and skin can 
contaminate the works. There is also a patent 
war. Mullis, now an independent consultant on 
PCR applications, invented the process while 
at Cetus, which owned the patent. The biotech 
company was sued by Du Pont (Du Pont lost) 
on the basis of a paper written 20 years earlier 
by Nobel-prize winner Har Gobind Khorana 
(then of MIT) that raised the possibility of a proc- 
ess such as PCR. Meanwhile, other companies 
are racing to develop rival systems. Mullis 
helped Cetus defend itself, 'although he re- 
signed two years after he invented PCR, for 



which his reward was a meager $10,000 bo- 
nus. His brand of freewheeling creativity was 
way too far out for corporate minds, even after 
he produced a breakthrough now worth hun- 
dreds of millions of dollars. In the meantime, 
Cetus sold PCR to Hoffman-LaRoche for §300 
million and consequently merged the compa- 
ny with Chiron Corporation of Emeryville, Cali- 
fornia, in December 1991. 

Mullis, whose emancipation from dull con- 
formity has always been evident, was born in 
1944. As a high-school student in Columbia, 
South Carolina, he sent a frag up a mile and 
a half in a rocket. He start- 
ed a poisons and explo- 
sives chemicals factory at 
Georgia Tech and invented 
a remote-control device to 
turn lights on and off with 
brain waves alone {flipping 
to a men's magazine center- 
fold triggers it). As a bio- 
chemistry major at Berke- 
ley (from 1969 to 1972), he 
taught neurochemistry class- 
es in hallucinogens, and at 
age 24 he published his 
first paper on the structure 
of the universe in Nature 
magazine. His adviser, Joe 
IMielands, recalls that Mul- 
lis's thesis was written in 
such a personal manner 
that it's still the best read in 
the department. Mullis was 
"very undisciplined and un- 
ruly," Nielands says — "a 
free spirit." 

Interviewer Anthony Liver- 
sidge talked to Mullis at his 
La Jolla home overlooking 
the Pacific, where surfers doi- 
ted the afternoon rollers. Af- 
ter the interview, Mullis 
rushed- to join them. 

Omni: Are you sexist? 
Mullis: No, but a lot of peo- 
ple think so. I show pictures 
of naked women, that's why! I like naked wom- 
en. I like them with their clothes on, too, but 
if you're gonna take a picture, you might as 
well take it with them naked. I show them 
with those Mandelbrots on them. This is my 
art! If you don't like it, close your eyes. I 
gave a lecture in Naples to a math depart- 
ment about how fraclals were generated, inter- 
spersed with pictures of naked women with 
Mandelbrots. It went over real big. They want- 
ed copies of my slides. They didn't call me 
sexist, though it's hard to be a sexist in Italy. 
But almost always someone comes up and 
says you can't show those kinds of pictures. 
It's not politically correct. I've cut down on it 
now because it causes me so much trouble. 
Wfomen are some of my best friends and the 
people I confide in most. But sometimes the 
harder you try to say you sympathize^ with 

70 OMNI 



FOUNDATION 
FOUNDED: 

The Institute for Further 
Study 

INSTITUTE 
CREDO: 

A place where no 

study can be 

considered complete; 

all results held 



pending further 

study; no publications 

forthcoming; 

all appointments 

tentative 

INSTITUTE 
POSITION: 

Provisional director await- 
ing study of the 
committee studying the 
provisional 
status of the director 

INVENTION IN 
WORKS: 

Celebrity DNA jewelry 




their problems, the more some people just 
sneer and say, "Sure." 
Omni: Whatare you working on now? 
Mullis: I've made this breakthrough in using 
PCR to screen the blood supply. This normally 
takes about a day, exposes people to infection, 
and is a pain in the ass. My way takes the DNA 
out of a large volume of blood in 15 minutes. 
■I just wrote a new patent. I tried the sim- 
plest thing possible and it worked. Pretty lucky, 
but lots.of times I get real lucky. I took advan- 
tage of the fact that DNA is spider-webby. You 
get it out of cells by breaking them very gent- 
ly. You pour the blood into 
a buffer with a detergent. 
Just don't jiggle the solution; 
let the DNA come out slow- 
ly so as not to break the piec- 
es. Takes about five min- 
utes. Then you pour the so- 
lution with the DNA mole- 
cules into a little filtration 
device. The only thing that 
stays on the filter is the 
DNA, because it's a long 
molecule, maybe a millime- 
ter. The DNA catches like 
spaghetti in a colander. Peo- 
ple said I'd never get the 
DNA off the filter. I tried for 
three weeks and finally 
popped it into the micro- 
wave. In a minute all the 
DNA came off the filter into 
the water! It's almost as if 
my fairy godmother said, 
"Pop it in the microwave." 
The trick probably works 
because microwaves turn 
water molecules into little 
buzz saws by whirling them 
around. Where the DNA is 
pulled down into the holes 
[of the filter], it's twisted and 
stretched, and these little wa- 
ter molecules go whooshl 
and rupture the bonds. What- 
ever it does, it works and 
works real fast. 
Omni: What inspired PCR? 
Mullis: I wasn't developing a way to amplify 
□NA at all. It was like I was randomly putting 
Tinkertoys together and finally made a struc- 
ture and said, "You know what? If I turn this 
toy wheel over there, that damn thing would 
wind string." Driving up to Mendocino and think- 
ing about an experiment to look at one par- 
ticular letter of the genetic code, I designed a 
system in my mind. As I repaired the things ! 
thought could go wrong with it, suddenly I gen- 
erated something that if I did it over and over 
again would be PCR. It would go 2, 4, 8, 16, 
32 ... in 30 cycles make as many base pairs 
from one little region as 1 had in the whole 
genome! That was the eureka point. I said ho- 
ly shit! By putting the triphosphates [DNA build- 
ing blocks] in there myself, I could do this proc- 
ess over and over and amplify the DNA. 



I slammed on the brakes and 
slopped by the side of the road to cal- 
culate It out. Then I drove on, because 
my lab assistant, was pissed. I said, "I 
have just come up with something in- 
credible." She'd been asleep in the car. 
She was the only person in Mendocino 
that night who knew anything about bi- 
ochemistry, but she didn't think it was 
any good. 

A couple of miles down the road I 
stopped again. I realized I could use 
these bastards, the oligonucleotides 
[Short pieces of DNA], and get the en- 
zymes to reproduce as big a piece as 
I wanted to. They didn't have to be 
aimed at just one base pair. Hell, f 
could do a whole sequence. I realized 
you can cut the sequence out from a 
great big molecule. Pretty cool! Just 
cut, paste, and amplify. This is going 
to be a tool that's spread around 
the world! 

I said, "If you get up and listen and 
help me with this, I'll put you on the in- 
vention." But she was just like the oth- 
ers at Cetus. She did not believe I 
could possibly have invented anything 
interesting because she knew me. She 
is not on the invention! 
Omni: How does PCR work, starting 
with one oligonucleotide? 
Mullis: I have suggested dropping lhat 
clumsy word from the dictionary. An ol- 
igonucleotide is a short piece of sever- 
al nucleotides, of single-stranded DNA. 
In PCR it acts as a primer, anchoring 
itself onto a long, single strand of DNA 
and getting elongated by the polym- 
erase, the enzyme molecule. The polym- 
erase copies the DNA by snatching 
these little monomers [DNA constitu- 
ents] out of the solution and stuffing 
them in at the right place on the oligonu- 
cleotide. The polymerase copies down 
the information from the long strand. 
With PCR, the first copy you make has 
one end defined, so it can't get elon- 
gated. During the next cycle, the other 
end is closed off, too, so the polym- 
erase just copies the target section of 
DNA you want. Then in cycles after 
that, only the defined DNA piece will be 
copied. It can be copied forever. 
Omni: So you end up with a pure sam- 
ple of the DNA you're after? 
Mullis: PCR detects a very, very small 
amount of some sequence interspersed 
in a whole bunch of similar sequences 
Then PCB makes so much of the se- 
quence, you end up with something 
that is almost all what you're interested 
in. It purifies as it amplifies because it 
only amplifies one thing. It's like a ra- 
dio amplifying only one wavelength 
amid all that are coming in. 
Omni: You made history at Cetus. Why 
aren't you still its superstar? 

72 OMNI 



Mullis: If Cetus had been more atten- 
tive to the needs of its inventors, I 
would have stayed and invented more 
things. At first it was a good environ- 
ment. I used the Cetus computer to set 
up a lab to make oligonucleotides and 
then had nothing to do. My boss said, 
"Don't tell them you've got it beat. Just 
play," I started thinking of what we 
could do with all these oligonucleotides. 
I'd no real responsibilities for about two 
years, and just played. By the end, I 
had PCR. 

Omni: What went wrong? 
Mullis: When they finally realized that 
someone among them had discovered 
something royally good, every sonofa- 
bitch administrator who wanted to 
make a name for himself suddenly de- 
cided he wanted to be my boss. There 
were wolves all around me. They all start- 
ed proposing experiments for me to do, 
treating me like a grad student. By 



iThen I realized you 
can cut the DNA sequence 

from a great big 
molecule. This is pretty cool — 

just cut, paste, 
and amplify! This is going to 

be a tool that 
is spread around the world. 9 



then I was working on what I thought 
would be the future direction of PCR. 
Nobody quite understood. They demand- 
ed I write down what I did and present 
it to a committee who'd decide if it was 
okay. I said, "I don't think that's neces- 
sary; I should be able to drift, okay?" 
They said no. 

They put me over the flames — "You 
haven't done this control, that control." 
I said, "I've done it before and can prob- 
ably do it again, but I am not a techni- 
cian. If I have to do things your way I'll 
end up doing things just like you and 
that's all." 

They should've said, "Okay, you just 
produced something that might make 
us a hundred million bucks, maybe a 
billion. What can we do to make life eas- 
ier?" But they took the golden goose 
and cut its head off. 

I was screaming for a year and a 
half about how important PCR was and 
no one was listening. They didn't expect 
an important breakthrough in genetics 
to come from an oligonucleotides lab. 
They didn't understand that important 



inventions almost always cross the 
lines of disciplines. You don't develop 
an invention by having one hundred 
guys working for five years to produce 
an invention. You have one guy who 
may even be flaky in his field and who 
jumps around and puts 'shit together in 
unlikely ways and sees something. It's 
hard to imagine even a good adminis- 
trator having a sense of how it works, 
If he did, he'd be an inventor himself 
because it's more fun. 

Most administrators work in sleazy 
ways, conferring in back rooms and 
coming in and acting as if the decision 
hasn't been made, and suddenly you 
think, What happened here? And 
they're off again to have another big 
meeting. 

There's nothing on the agenda of the 
board meeting on "What We Have 
Done This Week for People Who Have 
No Legal Right to It"! 
Omni: You didn't even get a promotion 
as a result of your discovery? 
Mullis: I didn't ever hang out in situa- 
tions that lead to that. How do you do 
It — put a sign up in the bathroom? I 
used to hang out with the younger peo- 
ple in the company. A mistake. But I 
don't generally like people my age. 
Most of my good male friends are for- 
mer boyfriends of my daughters. 
Omni: In other words, you're not inter- 
ested in power? 

Mullis: Over my own life, yes, but not 
over anybody else's. I had power. I ran 
the oligo lab and went up and said, "Let 
me out of this. I want to work by myself 
in the lab," 

Omni: But you helped Cetus fight Du 
Pont over the patent for PCR? 
Mullis: I wouldn't have if Du Pont 
hadn't sued Cetus. I could've worked 
for either but reckoned I'd defend my 
patent. I felt the challenge was unrea- 
sonable. Nobody ever heard of what 
Khorana had done. It was unpublished 
because they didn't think it'd really 
work — because Khorana was publish- 
ing papers about once a month. It 
would have been a very interesting ad- 
vance and would have changed the 
course of a lot of his work. 
Omni: What's their claim based on? 
Mullis: In 1971 his lab was assembling 
synthetic pieces of DNA. They were try- 
ing to figure out a way of making more 
of what they had already made in pure 
form. They knew there was an enzyme 
that would copy DNA sequences if a sin- 
gle long strand sequence had another 
short, single-strand piece, with a prim- 
er, on it. The DNA polymerase would 
start at the end of the short strand and 
add nucleotides complementary to the 
long strand. They wondered if it were 
possible to get a piece of DNA, melt the 

CONTINUE ON PAGE Bfl 



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AfUTIRHATTER 

HIGH-RISE UFO ABDUCTIONS: 

Alien abductions routinely occur in big cities and high-rise 

buildings around the world 




myth. In reality, 

Hopkins claims, abductions routinely occur in big cit- 
ies around the world. 

But there's one catch: Alien craft do not actually 
land in popi 

1 5, 20, or even 30 floors up ; 

ns in 
bie that this could 
City," K 

"What's more," he adds, "high- 
extraordinarily similar to their rural counterparts," 

i the rural variety, urban abductions occur 
in the wee hours of the morning. Urban abdi 

like their country cousins, report unpleasant 

cal exams aboard the alien craft. And virtually all ab- 
ductees say they've been abducted repeatedly 
since childhood, regardless of their address. "If they 
pick you up, they pick you up when you're a child, 
and you're like a tagged elk," says Hopkins. "You're 



' | white light. 

"They'll 
aid Chamberlain, a trom- 
r. "When 
after dark, there can be 50 UFOs 
. ... the ground of a big city, and no 

it." According to Chamberlain, aliens 

.__ him from his backyard in Refugio, Texas, 
when he was a child, in 1953. He also says he 
count" 
n his six-story apartment in Upper Mant 
since the 1980s. 

But if so many UFOs are visiting densely populat- 
as and abducting victims, how is it that none 



inda Nap (not I 
abductee. Nap 



minds of witnesses. They can 1 
to forget what they saw. I recently saw a UFO in 
ind pointing and there must 
in the street, but nobody 
looked. People just don't watch the sky. Especially 
in thfi rity. They just don't look up." 

y as all this sounds," adds Hopkins, "if one 

can accept the idea of a craft that's circular, can 
stop on a dime, make right-angle turns, and go al- 



ffimmimwttMBWBM m 



childhood city, too." — Anita Ba: 



AfUTinnATTER 



designed to c 

' " 1 Buddr 

| cept of "beginnei 



1 by gov 
.3 to "create ne 

„..^d systems and i 

ip intelligence activities 




ader of Tibet w.._ 

id ever seen any holy Anderson. Rt 

men fly {he had not) and b 

whether he didn't some- c 

times allow visions of v. 

l the bikini-clad women to drift 

,g. But inside, into his four-hour morning sents the onyi 

3 is hardly meditations. tion of Buddhi 



dne is hardly 
at all. Beside, 



lvoid t 



pjp* 

llili lii t/iV.j 



close to death. That's 
why William Serdahely, 
professor of health 
science at Montana 
State University, was 
surprised to discover on^ 
in his local newspaper. 
"" — i more surprising 

, . — that the child 
reported the presence of 
-"limals in his NDE. 

P., a seven-year-old 
_ ay, fell from a bridge 
while fishing, hitting his 
head on a rock at the 
bottom of the pond. He 
was submerged for 

ten minutes, 

I and when fist 
heartbeat had ceased. 



lance while wearing an 
oxygen mask. He also 
reported that while near 
death, he entered a dark 
tunnel lined with his 
family's 
Abby the cat and Andy 
the springer spaniel. 
After Andy licked P.'s 
face, he woke up. 

In previoi 
Serdahely notes, people 
have recalled deceased 
friends or relatives, but 
"this is the first < 
pets." Why | 
this little boy," Serdahely 
explains, "the dog and 



'ided 



imadeattansu.—, 

i tic call to David James, a 
Member of Parliament 
then raising funds for a 
search of Loch Ness. 
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PORTRAIT 

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 46 



Kautz says. "More importantly, they re- 
alized in retrospect that what came to 
them in a flash could not have been ra- 
tionally deduced from knowledge they 
had before." 

To illustrate, Kautz tells a story: Ger- 
man-born chemist Friedrich August 
Kekule von Stradonitz was napping in 
front of a fireplace, and he dreamt that 
a snake was biting its own tail. From the 
dream image, he conceived the ben- 
zene ring and the basis of modern or- 
ganic chemistry. Kautz, very gently, al- 
so likes to remind critics that Albert Ein- 
stein himself said, "I did not arrive at my 
understanding of the fundamental 
laws of the universe through my ration- 
al mind." 

Eventually, Kautz's curiosity lead him 
to the works of Jane Roberts, the wom- 
an who channeled the entity Seth. Af- 
ter reading the book, Seth Speaks, 
Kautz flew to New York to meet 
Roberts and had a number of sessions 
with Seth. He was intrigued by the idea 
that Roberts tapped into knowledge 
through Seth about subjects that were 
unfamiliar to her. During his sessions 
with Seth, Kautz posed personal ques- 



tions, scientific questions, and ques- 
tions about issues most people have no 
direct knowledge about, such as the or- 
igin of language. Kautz was so im- 
pressed by the quality of Seth's an- 
swers that he attributes his experience 
with Seth/Roberts as "the log that 
broke the jam," 

WhBn Kautz returned to the Bay -Ar- 
ea, he sought out other intuitives. Pen- 
ney Peirce, a former art director who is 
a CAI expert intuitive, met Kautz at the 
now nearly defunct Gaia Institute, an 
organization in San Francisco dedicat- 
ed to exploring issues in conscious- 
ness. "Bill Kautz was so refreshing," she 
says. "He was the typical absent-mind- 
ed professor trying to learn, taking 
notes on little slips of paper. His whole 
approach to channeling was so method- 
ical and grounded." 

For seven or eight years, Kautz 
lived a double professional life. At SRI, 
his fellow scientists knew that he was 
investigating intuition and creativity, but 
most of them weren't all that interested. 
So Kautz quietly plodded along giving 
unto SRI what was for SRI and giving 
unto intuition whatever he discovered 
in his travels. But people did begin to 
talk. "At SRI, trance mediumship is one 
area of research which has a high gig- 
gle factor," says Oliver W. Markley, the 



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former methodology director of a fu- 
tures study at SRI. A comparable ex- 
ample, he cites, would be NASA scien- 
tists who are "closet UFO freaks." 

Fortunately for Kautz, he wasn't the 
only SRI scientist to embrace the seem- 
ingly nonrational. During the mid sev- 
enties, SRI became a spawning 
ground for renegade scientists and en- 
gineers who were looking at nontradi- 
tional ways of gathering information and 
solving complex problems. One group 
was doing futures research, trying to de- 
termine what direction America might 
be taking 33 years into the future. One 
of their conclusions: Rational/analytical/ 
linear thinking would have to be re- 
placed by more intuitive methods of 
learning, Another group began a gov- 
ernment-sponsored series of remote- 
viewing experiments in which people in 
one room would describe what was go- 
ing on in another location. 

Today, many SRI "graduates" and for- 
mer "straight" scientists work in areas 
such as consciousness studies and fu- 
tures research — just like Kautz. As pro- 
fessor of human sciences and studies 
of the future at the University of Hous- 
ton in Clear Lake, Markley now runs the 
nation's only degree-granting program 
in futures work. Another former SRI sci- 
entist, Willis Harman, became a well- 
known author and president of the In- 
stitute for Noetic Sciences, founded by 
Edgar Mitchell, the Apollo astronaut 
who, when he saw the earth from 
space, had a profound spiritual expe- 
rience. The Institute is one of the pre- 
mier centers for consciousness studies 
in America. O'Regan, Noetic's VP for re- 
search, is also a former SRI staffer. Oth- 
er SRI personnel from this period in- 
clude Marshall Pease, executive direc- 
tor of the Foundation for Mind/Being Re- 
search in Los Altos, and Hal Puthoff, a 
scientist at the Institute for Advanced 
Studies in Austin, Texas, an organiza- 
tion that pioneered zero-point energy 
and its applications and quantum fluc- 
tuations in empty space. 

In 1977, while still a scientist at SRI, 
Kautz started the Center for Applied In- 
tuition. His mandate: to apply intuitive 
principles in areas where intuition ex- 
perts had rarely ventured — personal 
counseling, business consulting, and sci- 
entific inquiry. To assemble a staff of 
highly intuitive individuals, Kautz, in ef- 
fect, held auditions. "I needed to find 
people who were responsible and who 
had a high degree of integrity. If they 
were into channeling for stock tips, for- 
get it." During the interviews, Kautz 
says he discovered an important par- 
apsychological principle: The inquirer 
must need the information from the chan- 
nel. "Asking questions simply out of 



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curiosity does not work," Kautz says. 
"That's why so much parapsychologi- 
cal research has failed over the past 
150 years. Researchers ask questions 
which have no use to anyone, or they 
already know the answers to the ques- 
tions they ask." According to Kautz, the 
need to know is a critical factor when 
working with channeled information. 

The individuals Kautz ultimately 
asked to join CAI came from a variety 
of backgrounds ranging from comput- 
er programming and engineering to 
fine art and holistic healing. Nancy 
Sharpnack, for example, a mother and 
former statistician with the U.S. Forest- 
ry Service, channels a spirit. Hers is 
called Etherion. Other intuitives like 
Peirce and Nunn work in altered states 
(which more closely resemble normal 
consciousness than trances), offering 
what Peirce calls "heightened common 
sense." Kautz says he's never been 
able to find anything the intuitives 
have in common with each other except 
that they share a willingness to devel- 
op their intuitive abilities and they have 
a more spiritual outlook on life. 
"They've developed their natural intui- 
tive abilities and learned to use their in- 
tuition in a deliberate, focused, and con- 
scious way," Kautz says. 

In 1985, Kautz left SRI to pursue his 
intuition-related interests full time. Dur- ' 
ing the late eighties, Kautz's eclectic 
staff and his own scientific reputation 
attracted a diversity of clients such as 
Funei Research and Development 
based in Osaka. With over 1,200 cli- 
ents, Funei is one of the largest consult- 
ing firms in Japan, and Kautz and 
Nunn worked with over 25 Funei clients. 
CAI also sponsored a number of ses- 
sions in the United States for a broad 
spectrum of individuals, from Japanese 
housewives to dentists and business- 
men. The groups typically spend a 
week and a half in California attending 
CAI lectures and workshops which cov- 
er topics such as dream work, self- 
awareness, and consciousness. 

During this period, Kautz plunged in- 
to a number of research projects and 
pioneered the method of inquiry 
known as "intuitive consensus," which 
involves posing independently the 
same set of carefully prepared ques- 
tions to three to seven expert intuitives. 
Their responses are compiled, com- 
pared, and integrated into a report. One 
of Kautz's first studies focused on earth- 
quakes. Choosing this phenomenon 
was a logical extension of Kautz's be- 
lief thai natural events can be predict- 
ed where human decision-making fac- 
tors aren't present. He also believed 
that by performing a consensus study, 
the intuitives might be able to generate 



a range of new hypotheses in the area 
of geophysics. 

The CAI team's consensus: The com- 
ponents which cause most major earth- 
quakes are, among other factors, low- 
frequency electromagnetic radiation 
from the interior of the earth, the release 
of fossil-generated gases to the 
earth's surface, and extremely dry weath- 
er patterns. Contrary to current ground- 
based theories, what triggers an earth- 
quake, the team discovered, lies in the 
atmosphere — not in the ground. Accord- 
ing to Kautz, two recent government- 
sponsored studies conducted at SRI 
and observational data from earthquake 
monitoring stations around the world 
have corroborated some of Kautz's find- 
ings, giving credibility to the team's rev- 



olutionary hypothesis. 

No matter how rigorously Kautz ap- 
proaches his intuition work, his meth- 
ods — using trance channels to gener- 
ate consensus or hiring out expert in- 
tuitives to access information — inevita- 
bly challenge the principles of a ration- 
al, mechanistic view of reality, particu- 
larly in the United States. "The farther 
you go in intuition studies, the spooki- 
er it gets for a lot of people," says Har- 
man of Noetic Sciences. "If you push 
it to the extreme, you get into things 
like channeling." Harman thinks we're 
at a peculiar point in history. A genera- 
tion ago, we wouldn't have thought 
about looking into areas such as intui- 
tion, levitation, or remote viewing. A gen- 
eration from now, people will wonder 



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what all the fuss was about. "Bill Kautz 
is an explorer, someone who charges 
out and plants a flag 'out there' in front 
of even the vanguard and then wonders 
why various missiles come his way." 

Like many new-paradigm thinkers 
who embrace a more holistic view of the 
nature of reality, Kautz says that his 
work with intuition has dramatically 
changed the way he looks at life. "Sci- 
ence has been the source of authority 
in our modern world, and it's based on 
shaky assumptions — causality, opposi- 
tion of subject and object, rigid distinc- 
tions between observer and observed," 
he says. "Science assumes that there 
is an objective world out there, obey- 
ing mathematical laws, and we can 
learn all about reality by breaking mat- 
ter down into its simplest components 
and then observing and measuring it." 
Kautz no longer believes the prevailing 
view can explain the nature of reality. 
Neither does Harman. "All the old puz- 
zles in science — falling bodies, friction- 
less planes, space/time continuum — 
have been framed so that the observer 
assumes separability first and then 
asks the appropriate questions. When 
you look at things from the assumption 
that everything is connected, the pic- 
ture changes," Harman says. 

Some of Kautz's harshest critics 



come from the evangelical Christian com- 
munity — and again, it's a question of a 
world view or perspective on the nature 
of reality. Evangelicals acknowledge a 
spiritual realm where the forces of light 
and darkness are engaged in warfare. 
From their Biblical point of view, Kautz 
is tampering with evil. "The phenome- 
non of trance channeling can't be tie- 
nied when people seem to manifest per- 
sonalities," says Tal Brooke, president 
of the Berkeley-based Spiritual Coun- 
terfeits Project. "The question is, how 
do we interpret it?" Some say that 
there is nothing supernatural going on; 
it's simply psychological projection, 
says Brooke, who was for many years 
a top Western disciple of Indian guru 
Sai Baba before converting to Christi- 
anity. As a Biblical theist, however, he 
believes channeled entities could be re- 
al. "If they are, we know they can't be 
of God because mediumship is con- 
demned by the Bible." 

What about hunches, premonitions, 
and sudden bursts of knowledge? 
Where do these not-uncommon happen- 
ings fit into the Christian world view? 
"There are Christians who accept a neu- 
tral, latent psychic power in man, but I 
don't," says Brooke. He believes in in- 
tuition, but he doesn't think it's capa- 
ble of revealing information apart from 




the five senses. When someone reveals 
supernatural knowledge that can be ver- 
ified but which couldn't possibly have 
been known, "there has to be a spirit 
power involved, and it can only be one 
of two origins— God or. the powers of 
darkness," Brooke says. 

Does this mean that the spirits are se- 
ducing international business execu- 
tives who enlist the services of CAI? 
Why the Japanese gravitate to Kautz 
has as much to do with economics and 
politesse as it does with spirituality and 
belief systems. The Japanese place a 
great deal of trust in all forms of intui- 
tive communication. Even seemingly con- 
servative businessmen accept the idea 
that certain people have special knowl- 
edge, unusual insight. 

"Japanese businessmen rely a 
great deal on haragei, which means bel- 
ly talk," says Margaret Haas, the presi- 
dent of Haas International, aNewYork- 
and Tokyo-based executive recruiting 
firm. "It's belly-to-belly, gut-to-gut infor- 
mation. They honor intuition." And, 
Haas says, Buddhist influences still per- 
meate Japanese culture. It's not uncom- 
mon for a Japanese executive to refer 
to karma or fate when talking about a 
business deal or meeting. 

Whether or not American business- 
men and corporate executives come to 
embrace the work of CAI is yet to be 
seen. Although most of CAI's on-site cor- 
porate work has been in Japan, Nunn 
reports that he does consult for Ameri- 
can companies — a behind-the-scenes 
kind of assignment Typically, Nunn is 
hired by one individual, usually the 
CEO, to spend time at the company ob- 
serving the day-to-day happenings. So 
as no! to attract attention, Nunn's busi- 
ness card simply says "consultant." 

The reluctance to openly invite expert 
intuitives into the American boardroom 
and workplace may be shifting. Sales 
of books about enlightened leadership 
and management trends are on the 
rise. Americans — across the spectrum — 
are expressing a longing and interest 
in understanding more about the spiri- 
tual realm. "More and more people are 
crossing over a threshold from one way 
of looking at the world to another," 
Kautz says. "If they are reaching and 
want to break through, then maybe our 
work at CAI can help them through the 
doorway. If they're not there, I can't do 
anything." For a long time Kautz 
thought there was only one way to ac- 
quire knowledge — the scientific, ration- 
al way. "Today, I know that there is an- 
other way to learn — through direct know- 
ing, through intuition. My career has in- 
volved going from one camp to the oth- 
er. The only thing I can do is to try to 
bring the two together." DO 



G'ODEL 



new mathematics of fractal geometry 
brought hard science in tune with the 
peculiarly modern feeling for untamed, 
uncivilized, undomesticated nature. At 
one time rain forests, deserts, bush, and 
badlands represented all that society 
was trying to subdue. If people wanted 
aesthetic satisfaction from vegetation, 
they looked at gardens . . . By the end 
of the twentieth century, the culture had 
changed, and now science was chang- 
ing with it." 

In this we can see a coming togeth- 
er of many intellectual and scientific 
tools, empirical and mathematical, to re- 
veal that we do, in fact, live in Godel's 
universe, by giving us back an intuitive 
understanding of whal we can expect 
from such an existence, and what is pos- 
sible within it. Political systems, for ex- 
ample, should accept dynamism rath- 
er than clockwork, bureaucratic proce- 
dures for governing human affairs that 
cannot deal with open-ended develop- 
ments. Totalitarianisms have tried this 
and failed, impoverishing the econom- 
ic and cultural lives of their people 
along the way. It makes one appreci- 



ate the feedback that is encouraged by 
parliamentary democracies, which per- 
mit dissent in their design, and fear the 
efforts at closure that have been direct- 
ed at open-ended political systems 
from within through the stifling of free 
speech and the right to be wrong. 

Einstein was once asked what he 
would have done if -a physical experi- 
ment had contradicted his mathemati- 
cal prediction, and he answered by say- 
ing that he would have felt sorry for the 
Lord. Throughout his scientific life, he 
always stood up for intuitive imagination 
as being superior to physical experi- 
ment, although not independent of it. 
This was his way of accepting that we 
live in Godel's universe, and that what 
we can build in logic and mathematics 
also leads to discovery— that we are, in 
fact, connected by what we can do in 
our minds to aspects of reality. We can 
work backward from imaginative in- 
sights to physical proofs, and forward 
from physical facts and observations to 
larger systems of explanation. Gbdel him- 
self believed that mathematical intuition 
and ordinary sense perception are 
both ways of knowing, that the pres- 
ence of mathematical intuition within us 
is not purely subjective but also express- 
es an aspect of reality and "may be due 
to another kind of relationship between 




ourselves and reality." Godel's proof is 
as much about the limits of human 
minds, as it is about nature, because 
mind and nature are continuous. 

To live in Godel's universe is to be 
able to grow, to move from lesser to 
greater states of knowledge, to devel- 
op. It may be that outside human psy- 
chology the universe is a complete, de- 
terministic, totalitarian clockwork, and 
that it is the blinders we wear that 
makes it otherwise tor us, which 
makes us a modifier of the nature out- 
side our experience. It is how informa- 
tion from that nature reaches us that 
makes our kind of experience possible. 

Carl Sagan and others have told the 
apocryphal story about the Oriental phi- 
losopher's explanation of the world. I pre- 
fer the modern version about the little 
old lady who comes to a meeting of cos- 
mologists and insists that the world 
rests on the back of a giant turtle. The 
contemptuous chairman asks her what 
this turtle stands on, and she snaps 
back that it stands on the back of still 
another turtle. "And what does that tur- 
tle stand on?" the chairman demands. 
The little old lady shakes her finger at 
him and replies, "You can't fool me, son- 
ny; it's turtles all the way down!" 

Well, for human knowledge, it's 
maps all the way, and they will always 
fail to capture completely the infinity out- 
side, and I wouldn't have it any other 
way. Godel's proof may be the best ex- 
pression we've achieved of our relation- 
ship to maps and nature. At his death, 
Godel was compared to Einstein, and 
to Kafka, having proved that the castle 
was an infinite labyrinth that would nev- 
er reveal any ultimate secret. 

I suspect that this is the secret. DO 

CREDITS 
Cover: Trish Burgio; page 4, left bottom: 
Tom Zimberoff; page 4, top: Rafael 
Olbinskr; page 4, middle left: Fran Collin; 
page 4, middle right: Bettmann Archive; 
page 8: Catharine Karnow; page 11: Shel 
Secunda; page 24; Lisa Quinones/Blac 
Star; page 27: Stockphotos Inc.; page 3 
Bettmann Archives; page 32, top: Murray 
Al cos ser/l mage Bank; page 32, bottom: Joe 
Devenney/lmage Bank; page 33, top: Grey 
Villet/Black Star; page 33, bottom: Alfred 
Pasieka/Peter Arnold; page 34, top: F. Regi- 
nato/lmage Bank; page 34, bottom: Roy 
Morse h/Stock Market; page 36, top: So be I/ 
Klonsky/lmage Bank; page 36, bottom: 
Robert Nichols/Black Star; page 38, top: 
Jake Rajs/Image Bank; page 38, bottom: 
Mark M. Lawrence/Stock Market; page 42: 
Tom Zimberoff; page 44: Christopher Spring- 
man; page 54:Bettmann Archives; page 69: 
Fran Collin; page 75: Michael Sullivan; 
page 77, top: Landon C. Brown; page 77, 
bottom: Everett Collection; page 98: Shel 
Secunda. 



Ship Full 



CONTINUED FROM P^ 



screams and concerns of the Inquisi- 
tion which after all had absolutely noth- 
ing to do with him and which would go 
on its tortuous way whether or not he 
was present. So bring him here, Cristo- 
foro said. Let me discuss with you later 
the proper way to deal below deck, do 
you hear me? 

Whatever you say, Master, the yeo- 
man said and gestured. The rabbi, a 
huge bearded man wrapped in the vest- 
ments of his calling— but they all 
seemed to wear this strange and elabo- 
rate garb — shuffled toward him down- 
cast, his eyes seeking the deck, then 
his head tilting upward, the strange, lu- 
minous Israelite eyes locking with Crist- 
oforo's in' a way which induced 
strange sensations, perhaps due to the 
odors of steerage wafting from the rab- 
bi and vague screams across the wa- 
ter which might have been emanating 
from the Nina, just barely visible, or the 
more distant Santa Maria which Jesus 
Christo he could not and would not 
want to see in these conditions. 

Well, well, he said to the Jew as the 
yeoman backed away, submission in all 
of his posture— if nothing else he had 
established deference in this crew, he 
had the weight of royalty behind him 
and there were rumored special and terri- 
ble arrangements which the king 
could visit even at a distance upon muti- 
neers, spies among the crew — tell me 
what brings you above deck? Yes, 
what do you want? 

The Jew still staring at him in that curi- 
ous and affecting way said, My name 
is Solomon. Schelemo, I come to ask, 
you a favor — 

I am not interested in your name, Crist- 
oforo said. Your names, frankly, mean 
nothing to me. 

Yes, but— 

If I wanted to establish special rela- 
tions with Jews, Cristoforo said, it 
would not be through the medium of 
names. I would request your presence 
in other ways. You are here, below the 
decks, on sufferance, through the mer- 
cy of Isabella and Ferdinand, our king 
and queen. 1 have nothing whatsoever 
to do with any of this; I am simply un- 
der orders. 

That is understood, the Jew said. The 
conditions below are impossible. 
There are five hundred and fifty-two of 
us and we are fainting; we are placed 
one upon another in tight racks and with- 
out fresh air, without even the possibil- 
ity of air. There is much fainting and ill- 
ness. 

This is not my account, Cristoforo | 




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said. Conditions are difficult for all of us. 
This is a voyage of privation. 

I beg of you, Solomon said. Permit 
us to come above decks. Not all togeth- 
er but ten or twenty at a time, just to re- 
lieve ourselves of this torment, to take 
the air. lo move — 

Conditions are worse on the Santa Ma- 
ria, Cristoforo said. It is a slave ship, 
filled with the darkest felons of our 
lime. But they do not complain. They 
drift upon the waters to the New World 
uncomplainingly and they hold against 
the day. 

I know nothing of that, Solomon 
said. I know only the conditions below 
deck. We are perishing; soon the dis- 
ease will begin, then the slow and ter- 
rible wasting of flesh— even our most fer- 
vent prayers will go unanswered — 

Cristoforo shrugged. Another shrug. 
Shrug at this, turn away from that, con- 
sider the Marins who it was rumored 
had renounced their Judaism to live in 
secret and had thus evaded the eye of 
the Inquisition while seeking remission 
in other ways. Cristoforo knew plenty 
about that. Shrug at the sea, shrug at 
the New World itself. If it had been left 
to him he would have been a merchant 
at the Port of Barcelona and would 
have left conditions such as these to the 
more intrepid. How did this happen to 



him? How had he become the Master 
of such a rude voyage? It was all that 
Cristoforo could do not to reach out and 
shake the rabbi, explain that there 
were many in agony here and that ago- 
ny was not now only a matter of steer- 
age. But he said nothing, of course. The 
loneliness and fervency of command. 

I am sorry, he said, I cannot help 
you. You will have to do what you can 
down there. It is so decreed. The condi- 
tions were made quite explicit to me; 
surely the same was done for you. 

But how long? Solomon said. How 
long will this voyage be? 

Another shrug. Shrug at distance, at 
lust, at all the complications of empire 
and design. I can't answer that, Cristo- 
foro said. It could be weeks, it could be 
a matter of days. We have been at sea 
for almost a month and we are in un- 
charted waters. When the New World 
looms over the horizon and not before 
then the journey will end. The rest is in 
hands we cannot understand. Surely 
you know of imponderables, of fate. 

I know of nothing, Solomon said. You 
misjudge us, all of us, clearly. We are 
not cattle; we are as you and we are 
suffering. Men, women, and little chil- 
dren, some with pets smuggled aboard, 
all in pain, all of them with special and 
necessary grace. Do you understand 



any of this? 

You are to return below deck at 
once, Cristoforo said, the dark lash of 
anger trailing through his bowels. Now, 
before this continues. You are insolent 
and you are exceeding my patience. 
You were taken aboard by measure of 
the queen's generosity and because 
she took a sudden and unaccustomed 
pity upon you. I know of nothing else. 

They cry, Solomon said. They pray 
and in their prayers is their spirit and 
their torment. He gestured. Can't you 
hear? Indeed the keening of the Jews 
to which Cristoforo had accommodat- 
ed himself as he had to the stunning cur- 
vature of the water struck him sudden- 
ly, rose up within him now with the urgen- 
cy if not the frag ranee 'of those spices 
he sought. Words seemed to emerge 
dimly from the groans of insistence, 
then subsided. Adonai, the Jews 
cried, Elohim. Brich hu omen. 

countrymen, Solomon said, my 
countrymen, my brother — 

Enough, Cristoforo said. I am the cap- 
tain. He turned his back to signal that 
the interview was over, that the petition 
had been reviewed and denied, that no 
less than Torquemada he had been 
forced to obduracy as a means of con- 
taining these people. Behind him he 
could hear grunts, then whimpers as if 




Solomon were planning some desper- 
ate final assault. Cristoforo shook his 
head, folded his arms, stared grimly at 
the sea which heaved from its green- 
ish depths the small mysteries of flot- 
sam, small pieces of debris which as- 
sumed vaguely organic shape, then 
were swallowed by the water. V'yis- 
gadal. Shmeh rabo. The small and dimin- 
ished sound of Solomon pattering away 
from him and then the chants rising 
from the spaces of Neptune, mingling 
with the sounds of the sea itself, swad- 
dling Cristoforo in the dangerous and 
terrible sounds which signaled the 
slow turning of the Earth, the emerg- 
ence of the New World to the starboard, 
in the distance Cristoforo imagined 
that he could see mountains, could 
glimpse the tread of elephant, could 
see the bangles of princes as they con- 
tended with one another for the splen- 
dors of their new estate, but he knew 
the signs of delirium when from a great 
distance he let it signal him. He was a 
man of the sea. Cristoforo shrugged 
again, shrug for the Jews, for Torquema- 
da's insistence, for Torquemada's de- 
scent. Shrug for the New World, shrug 
for the troubles and purchase of five hun- 
dred Jews below deck whom he would 
never see, could never grasp. More 
was to be done and later. He felt his 
body lighten as a sense of decision 
came upon him. This would only last to 
a certain point, then there would be an- 
other circumstance. He was sure of it. 
Shrug and step, step and shrug, a sud- 
den disturbing intimation of Isabella's 
swollen and needful breast prodding at 
him as he signaled the yeoman to take 
over, however momentarily, the helm. 

On the Santa Maria, Torquemada, en- 
thused, gathered the desperadoes 
around him. Garbed as they, indistin- 
guishable from them, far departed 
from the priestly robes of his magnifi- 
cence, he had become their equal and 
therefore their superior. The plan was 
working. The cunning and ingenious 
plan, worked out in the most sacred plac- 
es of the Church and then with the 
king and queen was working. 

Oh listen to me, Torquemada said. 
Oh listen friends and companions. 
They gathered around him, the most des- 
perate men of Spain, men so desper- 
ate that on this voyage of desperation 
they had been segregated. Only Tor- 
quemada could control them, could un- 
derstand and apprehend their spirit and 
it was for this reason, to test himself, 
that he had embarked upon this exile. 
Behind him the Jews who soon enough 
would be encountered. The New . 
World beckons, Torquemada said, a 
place of justice, light, and peace. At- 



tend to it! Can you not see it? Unshav- 
en and desperate heads turned, glean- 
ing the new land through the spume of 
the sea. Here we will begin afresh, 
Torquemada said. That was the plan, 
the plan for all of us. They murmured 
in response. Here, Torquemada said, 
we will take the Jews and plant them, 
rid the world of Israel, depart then for 
new and better shores. But you must 
keep your courage up. Must not fail. 

Kill them, one of the men said. We 
should go back to the Master's ship and 
kill them now. 

Torquemada smiled, thinking of how 
far he had taken them, how far all of 
them had come in this one sharp, diffi- 
cult month of voyage. Mot just yet, he 
said. It must be at the right time for the 
right purpose. Now it would be just 
slaughter. There was enough slaughter 
in Spain, here it will be of a different 
kind. We will seed the ground, 
Torquemada said. We will expend 
their blood in the purposes of conse- 
cration and it will be -better. 

You talk like a priest, one of them 
said. Are you a priest, then? Or are you 
one of us. 

I am one of this and one of the oth- 
er, Torquemada said. I make faith with 
you in these spaces as you make faith 
with me. Soon the mountains, the table- 
lands of the New World will be upon us 
and we will turn them holy under the 
gush of sacrificial blood. But for now, 
he said, for now we must once again 
pray. We must place our knives and ord- 
nance in protected places and pray for 
a good conclusion to this voyage. Do 
you hear me? Ave Maria, Torquemada 
said, and continued with the familiar lit- 
any. They settled in with him, attentive 
as scholars to the rhythm of his words. 
I had no choice, Torquemada thought, 
looking at the high plumes of the wa- 
ter, the sails glinting against the turbu- 
lence. It was difficult but the only 
means to carry forth the Inquisition. One 
must constantly move outward in order 
to move inward. We had accomplished 
our sacred purposes in Madrid, Barce- 
lona had become ours as well; soon it 
would have turned within and by losing 
everything we would have gone beyond 
risk. But here, here, by transporting the 
Jews, by moving .forth even as we 
move back, we have encountered and 
made ripe the oldest possibilities of all. 
Or am I not sanctified? he thought, 
a man of doubt as well as of faith, just 
as the honored Saviour himself had 
been. Is it this or that? Is it one thing or 
the other? Is that shipful of Jews head- 
ed for the Jerusalem of the spirit which 
we will erect or, aligned in the sign of 
the cross, will they perish at the bottom 
of the seas? In Cristoforo's hands, he 




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thought, but fortunately I can attend to 
the matters of transcendence, leave the 
temporal In the hands of Crisioforo. Thy 
will be done, Torquemada said. They 
looked at him intently. He raised his 
hands in the gesture of submission, feel- 
ing the terrible power of the waters 
underneath. 

In the racks, Solomon said, I did the 
best I can. I pleaded with him. I asked 
for air and light. 

But he said no, the three Davids 
said. He said no, the Israelites said. He 
would not have us, Judith and Rachel 
said, wiping the foreheads of the chil- 
dren who clustered. He refused. 

That is right, Solomon said. He re- 
fused. He said that we were steerage, 
garbage, at the behest of the queen but 
of no concern to him. I told him that we 
would die and he turned away. There 
is nothing to be done. 

Cristoforo is not a man of mercy, Ju- 
dith said. He cares nothing for any of us. 

That is not so, Solomon said. He is do- 
ing what he must, just as we are. He is 
in the control of larger forces. At least 
we are on the seas. We have been 
spared the Inquisition. Maybe it will be 
different for those of us who live. If they 
live. If we live. This damnable voyage — 

Spared the Inquisition, Ruth said, tak- 
ing Solomon's hand, but not the Inquis- 
itor. The Inquisitor is always with us. He 
comes in the night, he follows on the 
seas, he screams from the bowels of 
Neptune. I understand that now. 

Nothing to be done, Solomon said. 
We are creatures of their mercy. 

I tell you, Rachel said, that there is a 
judgment coming which is beyond all 
of us They seek a New World but it is 
eternally the old. 

The steerage, silent when Solomon 
had returned, cast down to silence by 
hope or at least curiosity, resumed, bro- 
ken fragments of prayers ascending on- 
ly to the thin bulkheads which made 
them crouch against the racks, then dis- 
persed. It will not be long, Solomon 
said. We cannot survive this. We are a 
shipful of Jews, not of mystics or explor- 
ers, and in our flight is our guilt and our 
culpability. Nevertheless — 

Nevertheless,. Judith said, as if she 
had taken his thought, pressing his 
hand, nevertheless we have at least car- 
ried ourselves, carried a bit of testimo- 
ny, moved to some different place 
through the designs of our own spirit. 
We are not Marins. We are not apostosa- 
ic. Our apostasy is of a different kind — 

All displacement is apostasy, Solo- 
mon said, the chanting murmuring 
about him, the disputation with Judith — 
this woman, to engage not only in 
prayers but Talrnudic disputation with 



women was their peculiar but neces- 
sary fate in these conditions— continu- 
ing all of their strange and strangely con- 
fluent anguish melding as the Pints 
inexorably carried them toward a fate 
which they could not determine, in all 
faith, in the faith of God, "the one God 
of Israel whose Name was One and 
whose Oneness was indivisible in the 
heart of their exile. 

Torquemada, seized by a sudden spir- 
it of ecstasy and affirmation, struck as 
if by a bolt from the brow of the Holy 
Ghost, began to dance and heave up- 
on the deck of the Santa Maria, incog- 
nizant of the stares of the felons, indif- 
ferent to the risks which this display of 
ecstasy might bring upon him, the 
steps of his dance, carrying him from 
one side of the ship to the other while 
on the bosom of the ocean the craft 
lurched and spilled not only its provi- 
sions but its prayers in the sullen light 
of the journey. 

And so, and so they came upon 
mysterious India then, their New 
World, the slave ship and the Master's 
ship and the ship between, the shipful 
of Jews and the ship of the Inquisitor, 
caught their first glimpse then of the 
New World through the mist and fog of 
their combined prayers and in that mo- 
ment, as Torquemada leapt, as the 
Jews chanted, as a grim and compli- 
ant Cristoforo adjusted sextant and com- 
pass, shrugged toward this newest 
part of his destiny, in that moment it was 
as if all the centuries had. expired and 
this strange and mismatched concate- 
nation of spirit and flesh, voyagers and 
prisoners, repelled and necessitous 
were gathered by the bolt which had 
struck Torquemada and which swept 
them from the heart of the ocean to the 
bowels of the ship, then expelled them 
to the crevices of the millennium itself, 
myths of purgation and collision hasten- 
ing their way toward coming aposta- 
sies. The shipful of Jews, their captain, 
their keeper and their Inquisitor joined 
at last in that voyage of transcendence. 
Cristoforo dreamed it, dreamed it all, 
dreamed that he was in the gravity of 
Isabella herself, her capacious sex 
absorbing and expelling him as would 
all the centuries and scholars to come 
and the spray of his seed upon the 
ocean of the queen the plume to drag 
him past myth and toward, the first aware- 
ness of his destiny. Cristoforo the Jew. 
Cristoforo the keeper of souls. 

Reciting Kaddish then: V'yish 
ka'dash. Shmeh rabbo. 

All hallowed be the name of our God. 

Brich hu. 

Hallowed and sanctified. 

O-men. DQ 



IfUTERV/IEUU 



two Strands apart, put the short DNA 
primer on them, and get the enzyme to 
make two copies. The trouble was 
there was a competing reaction, If you 
melt a DNA molecule apart into two 
strands, as soon as you cool it they'll 
find each other and wrap up into one 
strand again. 

Somebody of high authority, maybe 
Khorana himself, said thai it wouldn't 
work for this reason. As far as I can 
tell, they abandoned those experiments 
and stuck to doing the strands sepa- 
rately in two tubes. Then at a meeting 
in Hawaii, Stan Cohen [Vanderbilt] and 
Herb Boyer [UCSF] invented recombi- 
nant DNA cloning in an all-night deli 
drinking beer. When word got back to 
MIT, they dropped all those experi- 
ments and pushed all the tubes to the 
back of the freezer. They solved their 
problems by cloning. So they never 
went back and tried to solve the sepa- 
ration problem. 

Omni: Cloning will make huge amounts 
of DMA, but unselectively, right? 
Mullis: In molecular cloning, every 30 
minutes or so the cell divides, making 
2, 4, 8. 16 copies of an inserted DNA 
sequence. But every time it doubles, it 
copies everything, the whole DNA 
piece. There might be 5 million pairs of 
it there. 

Cloning was a glitzy thing when it 
was discovered. It just blew people 
away. Everyone who could find a use 
for it dropped everything and did it. 
Now PCR has replaced it in many 
ways because it makes a small piece 
of DNA faster and easier. You don't get 
all the other stuff; you make a purified 
product. PCR is the first step that 
makes it easier to clone. It allows you 
to go in and clone a human gene by 
first isolating it, like a pair of tweezers 
going in and pulling it out. Once am- 
plified up a millionfold, you can sepa- 
rate it and clone it up. All cloning of hu- 
man genes today uses PCR in one way 
or another. 

Omni: What is the direction PCR's go- 
ing in right now? 

Mullis: It's so widely used by molecu- 
lar biologists that its future direction is 
the future of molecular biology itself. It's 
like asking what is the future direction 
of the screwdriver— it's whatever peo- 
ple use screws for. PCR is to DNA 
what the screwdriver is to screws. For 
now, PCR's future is wherever anything 
is being done with DNA. There is a PCR 
machine in every DNA lab already. 
Omni: What neat things are PCR ma- 
chines making possible? 



Mullis: A rather complex one is a way 
of re-creating evolution. This will have 
major significance in designing pharma- 
ceuticals. PCR enables you to re-cre- 
ate molecular evolution fast in the lab. 
You start with a mass of molecules and 
select the property you want. Then PCR 
pulls the rnolecules with that property 
away from the rest— one 'part in a tril- 
lion — and amplifies that. In the process, 
you introduce new mutations and select 
for those with the properties you want. 
Craig Turek at the University of Colora- 
do has already used it to select for RNA 
molecules and is now using it to select 
for protein molecules. 
Omni: Why did you decide to call your 
cabin up in Mendocino the Institute for 
Further Study? 

Mullis: A lot of papers end with the 
phrase "This result deserves further 
study," trying to get a grant. The IFS is 
a place where this can be done, 
where no study can be considered com- 
plete, where all results will be held pend- 
ing further study, where no publications 
will be forthcoming, and all appoint- 
ments are tentative. I am the provision- 
al director awaiting study of the com- 
mittee studying the provisional status of 
the director! 

Omni: Where are you going next? 
Mullis: I have a great new job with Gen- 
eral Atomics in San Diego. They make 
nuclear reactors for satellites and one 
of the two controlled fusion reactions in 
the world that work. Most of their stuff 
is classified. They are physicists, basi- 
cally, who've decided to apply their so- 
phisticated devices to create new biol- 
ogy technology. Molecular biology is, af- 
ter all, a result of physicists going into 
biology. I'm supposed to look over 
their scientific proposals for research in- 
to problems they've identified and see 
if the proposed solution makes any 
sense. This is what I like most to do — 
look at basic ideas and have others 
work on ideas I suggest. I will come up 
with and review ideas. 
Omni: What are the potentials here? 
Mullis: Frontiers of medicine are con- 
verging with the frontiers of chemistry. 
Aside from surgical procedures, devel- 
opments have been coming mainly 
from- chemistry for the last 15 years. 
Biology down underneath is just chemis- 
try in a very, very sophisticated mani- 
festation. Now we can approach biol- 
ogical problems with sophisticated instru- 
ments. We can study the structure of 
the microbe that causes measles, 
or whatever. 

Omni: Do you think that you will be able 
to come up with a second PCR-type 
breakthrough? 

Mullis: My blood sampler may benefit 
some of their physics expertise and 



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might be more valuable to the world 
than PCR. To identify the hundreds of 
compounds in a blood sample, I'll use 
a scanning probe microscope that can 
see atoms one at a time. The aspect I'm 
working on now is cluster coding mol- 
ecules — like putting bar codes in a gro- 
cery store. The checker never has to 
look at the article you're buying put 
just has to pull it over the bar-code read- 
er. I'm trying to do that for clinical chem- 
istry to find a way to recognize the mol- 
ecules in a blood sample without hav- 
ing to observe them directly. If you can 
put a bar code on each kind ot mole- 
cule and find some way to read it, the 
problem is over. 

Omni: You'll put a blood sample in 
your machine and out will come a list" 
of its constituents? 

Mullis: All the things in it, and much 
more efficiently than before. A machine 
in hospitals gives the levels of some 12 
chemicals in blood — sodium, calcium, 
potassium, and so on. But there's no 
such thing that will work for hundreds 
of proteins, really complex molecules. 
I'm going to try for 32 compounds at 
first. Then it should be no problem to 
do it for 64, or 128, That's as many 
things as anybody gives a darn about 
in blood. If it works, there's no reason 
it can't be done in a doctor's office. Com- 
mercially it would be enormous; you 
could take over all of clinical diagnos- 
tics, a 5-billion-dollar-a-year market. I 
have to figure out how to make it work 
or get someone else to. The concept is 
biologically valid, though technical 
problems need to be solved, just like 
with PCR. 

This time I'm not going to hand it over 
to some company like Cetus without 
something saying it's mine. If anyone 
makes $300 million off it, I'm going to 
be part of that. Cetus has sold the rest 
of PCR they had not already sold for 
$300 million. This is the most money ev- 
er paid in history for a patent. You 
couldn't tell that from looking at my car- 
pet in here that's not even clean, And 
it's not ermine, either! 
Omni: Couldn't they have given you a 
million dollars? 

Mullis: I said, "Hey, why don't you 
make it $301 million? Send it in the 
mail; it will be good publicity for you?" 
But I'm going to do all right. You don't 
expect the world to take care of you. 
Absolutely no reason to think business- 
men are going to behave like philoso- 
phers. Fair is not business, and busi- 
ness will grow, despite nasties and crum- 
mies in your tummy, as Dr. Seuss said. 
I don't have any resentment. You'd 
have to be neurotic to expect that busi- 
ness will be fair. 
Omni: Why didn't you charge Cetus to 



help defend the patent? 
Mullis; I could have, but didn't realize 
it. When Du Pont started their suit, I 
could have demanded one million 
straight up front or go work for Du 
Pont. The lawyer told me this as we 
drove home from the courthouse after 
the verdict. You don't realize sometimes 
how important you are. I didn't take the 
case seriously. I didn't realize how frag- 
ile is the interaction between science 
and the law. A scientist has certain 
ways of thinking about how to establish 
proof that are not exactly the same as 
lawyers', and the response of the jury 
is a delicate kind of thing. 
Omni: How could you imagine believ- 
ing PCR had been invented before you 
did invent it? 

Mullis: When I told them in 1986 about 
PCR at the Symposium on Quantitative 
Biology held every June in Cold Spring 
Harbor — a big meeting of the elite in mo- 
lecular biology — I got a standing ova- 
tion. It was an excited knot of people 
walking out of that room. Clearly some- 
thing had been invented for the people 
who needed it. And nobody stood up 
to say, "That's cool, but we've known 
about it for years." It was, "Bravo! You 
have just changed our lives!" Even Kho- 
rana never said he'd invented it and 
hadn't told anybody about it. He'd 
have been an absolute fool in front of 
his colleagues if he'd said, "Sure we in- 
vented it in 1970; we just regretfully 
didn't publish it, and I'm sorry you 
guys had to wait 15 years for this little 
wimp from Cetus to come up with it." 

The patent had my name on it. I 
would've felt real funny working for the 
other side, saying I really didn't invent 
it! I'd have had to say I didn't know it 
was invented before, or that all the ele- 
ments were there, but I don't know why 
it wasn't invented before. Could have 
made a convincing case for the jury. 
But I knew I really had invented it for 
the first time. It is hard to invent it and 
forget it. 

Omni: When you become rich, will you 
work less hard? 

Mullis: I will write. That's all. I am look- 
ing forward to sitting up in my place in 
Mendocino and spewing out all kinds 
of nonsense in my little computer. I've 
got a really nice science-fiction movie 
or two in my mind. 

I've done a lot of fiction. The best fic- 
tion teaches people something of inter- 
est in a. totally painless way. That's 
what I'd like to do more than anything 
else. But I don't want to be poor. 
Omni: What about your idea to sell ce- 
lebrity DNA? 

Mullis: A weird little thing, yes. We are 
going to try to use PCR to. make cer- 
tain pieces of DNA of celebrities. The 




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idea is that teenagers might pay a little 
money to get a piece of jewelry, a brace- 
let, or whatever, containing the actual 
piece of amplified DNA of somebody 
like a rock star. We just have to get a 
little piece of skin, clip a nail or some- 
thing from the person, prepare the 
DMA, copy it through PCR, and put it 
in a locket. You could say, "Here's a se- 
quence from Mick Jagger." Something 
to do with his lips, say. The jewelry will 
look like something your Gypsy grand- 
mother gave you, and in there will be a 
little speck of DNA. 

Omni: Who's to know that what you put 
in there isn't chicken DNA? 
Mullis: The problem of authenticity is 
solved by the fact that I am Kary Mul- 
lis. Anyone from Taiwan who tried to 
pull it off might not get away with it. We 
will certify authenticity. 

We'll also have a little collection of 
DNA of all primates showing evolution 
over the millennia, for the Nature Com- 
pany, say. There are a lot of angles. 

We've got a jeweler working on it 
now, You could stamp the DNA se- 
quence on the jewelry, like stamping 
coins, so it looks really official. If we 
could get permission to use someone 
like Elvis Presley, we could do a gene 
of the month, and you could have a col- 
lection like stamps. We're doing this as 

92 OMNI 



fun. If we succeed, fine; if not, no one 
is going to go broke. 
Omni: How feasible is cloning a whole 
human today? 

Mullis; If there weren't a law against it 
we could do it in an apartment. We'd 
have to get a woman who'd let us get 
some eggs. The mechanisms are fairly 
sophisticated on paper, but the actual 
manipulations you do are not hard at all. 
You just put a drop of this on that, do 
such-and-such, check for X, stick it 
back into some kind of thing, and grow 
it up. They make transgenetic mice now 
routinely. Anything you can do with a 
mouse, you can do with a person, if the 
person, the Catholic church, and the 
law allow it. 

Omni: Where do you see biology chang- 
ing life most in the future? 
Mullis: The biological weirdness will 
come in virtual reality. In the twenty- 
second century, people will experience 
realities so bizarre, we can hardly com- 
prehend them. Once we crack the 
right code, we will take a little piece of 
something and lay it over your spinal 
cord, or maybe go in electronically 
through your finger to allow signals to 
be sent into your brain directly from a 
computer. 

The machine will totally shut out all 
peripheral senses and take over, talk- 



ing directly to your brain. You will sit at 
some console to control it. What you 
will experience will not be you anymore 
but a character in a videogame, and 
you'll really feel like it. Everything you 
ever hoped for you will now feel. In 
fact, you will be able lo change into 
things you never imagined, because 
this setup will generate new kinds 
of sensations. 

Many people will never go outside un- 
less they have to. For entertainment, 
they will always get out their virtual re- 
ality equipment and dial up and visit a 
bar in Bangkok, say, or fly over Bang- 
kok at 3,000 feet on their back. The im- 
ages will include other individuals who 
can plug in and meet you in the bar, 
and you can have anything you want as 
your persona. You can come in as a per- 
fectly functional male or female, or as 
an elephant. Some people such as the 
bartender will be paid to do this every 
day. He gets up, attaches himself to the 
system, and projects a bartender per- 
sona there. He may be a robot. Most 
customers won't be able to tell the dif- 
ference: The reproduction will be so com- 
plete, you can see, touch, smell, and 
feel it. You can go home with somebody 
in the bar to some apartment in Bang- 
kok and it will all be charged to your 
VISA card. 

Omni: How did you come to write your 
1968 paper for Nature on the cosmo- 
logical reversal of time? 
Mullis: Courses in astrophysics. gave 
me two competing descriptions of the 
universe: big-bang and steady-state the- 
ory. I thought both were sophomoric ap- 
proaches, because each is based on 
the premise that you could actually 
step outside the universe and look at 
it. That's stupid. Relativity makes it 
clear you can't talk about the universe 
from outside. If you look at it from in- 
side and assume relativity is part of 
what's going on — which neither theory 
did then — it makes sense. 

I was at Berkeley and taking acid 
every week. That's what people did for 
entertainment: drink beer or go out 
into Tilden Park and take 500 micro- 
grams of LSD and sit all day thinking 
about the universe, time going back- 
wards and forward. Some mornings I'd 
wake up and think I ought to write that 
out. So I did. 

Moving between fields is the way to 
be creative Keep your fingers in a lot 
of pies. I do it because I'm curious. I'm 
the only person I know who goes into 
a poster session [at a scientific meet- 
ing] and stops at the first poster I have 
no idea what it's about. Find the poster 
you don't know anything about and 
look at it for a long time, and you might 
learn something totally different. DO 



GAfVlES 



BELIEVE YOUR EYES: 

New illusions to test your senses 

By Scot Morris 



Illusions are merely 
games of perception. Here 
are some of my favorite new 
ways to play tricks on your 
visual senses. 

The Living Image (Fasci- 
nations, 18964 Des Moines 
Way South. Seattle, Wash- 
ington 98148; $38). From 
the time we're, born, our 
minds are predisposed to 
seeing the world illuminated 
from above because of the 
sun. So what happens to our 
perception when normally 
convex objects are illuminat- 
ed from below? 



The Living Image uses 
underlighting to make a 
white, concave face appear 
Convex. A light in its base 
brightens the upper parbof 
the face — the forehead and" 
top of the nose — the way 
sunlight would a regular, 
convex face. What you see 
is a 3-D face that appears to 
rotaieand follow you as you 
move around the room. The 
illusion is so strong, it's hard 
not to see. 

Day Dreamer (Alpha 
Odysseys, P.O. Box 17997, 
Boulder, Colorado 80308; 
$14.95 plus $3.00 shipping 
and handling). You can 
spend hundreds of dollars 
on meditation machines that 
use a strobe light, visible 

64 OMNI 




through special plugged-in 
goggles, or you can get the 
same effect with the 
lung-powered Day Dreamer. 

Don the face mask and 
look toward the midday sun 
with your eyes closed As 
you blow gently into the 
mouthpiece, a spinning 
shutter blocks the eye holes 
and produces a flickering 
effect. As you blow harder, 
the shutter spins faster, and 
your mind's eye sees a 
pulsating display of swirling, 
multicolored patterns and 
geometric, 3-D designs, 
"his is the only strobe-light 
experience that uses the 
true source of full-spectrum 
light— the sun. Timothy 
Leary has called it "a 
wonderful window into the 
neuroverse." 

It's Alive! (Kevin James, 
9682 Katella, Anaheim, 
California 92804; $25). This 
is the best shock illusion 
since the classic "severed 
thumb." In your white- 
gloved right hand you hold a 
grisly human forearm. At 
one end is a bloody stump; 
at the other end is what 
appears to be a severed 



hand — that moves! Los 
Angeles magician Kevin 
James, who invented It's 
Alive! and uses it in his 
stage act, now offers a 
packaged version available 
to the public that looks 
remarkably real — even 
close up. The fake severed 
arm comes with an extra 
white glove for your left 
hand to complete the 
startling effect. 

Wordplay: Ambigrams 
and Reflections on the Art of 
Ambigrams by John Lang- 
don (Harcourt, Brace, Jova- 
novich; Spring 1992), John 
Langdpn has been creating 
elegant word designs for 
about 15 years, and we've 
printed several of them in 
this column: VICTORIA and 
TOUCH in November 1980 
in connection with the 
publication of Scott Kim's 
inversions, and two more, 
AMBIGUITY and PHILOSO- 
PHY, when we announced. 
Competition. #46 for Am- 
bigrams in June 1988. 

Now Langdon is publish- 



ife 



wmtmttm 

ing more than 40 of his 
word-art works in his new 
Wordplay book. My favorite 
is MINIMUM— simply con- 
veyed with a zigzag line and 
four dots. Langdon writes 
well, too, offering clever and 
thoughtful essays about 
each word subject — from 
SCIENCE to RELATIVITY to 
BALANCE. 

Hologram Time Traveler 
(Sega; at arcades for $.50 to 



$.75 per play). This new 
interactive 3-D game is the 
best reason to visit a game 
arcade now. Time Traveler's 
characters are actually 
four-inch-tal! holograms. 

Twenty-five actors were 
filmed for the parts in 
various stages of action — 
jumping, ducking, attack- 
ing, dying. The scenes were 
then transferred to a Sony 
12-inch videodisc. A Trini- 
tron TV monitor inside, the 
console plays back the 
scenes, which are reflected 
by a parabolic mirror into the. 
space above the glass 
playing surface. 

Gamepiay is complex as 
youlravel through time, 
and the scenes are 
sometimes- violent: Pull 
the joystick back in time 
and the character Marshal 
Gram jumps clear of a 
warrior's flaming arrow; 
move too slowly, and the 
cowboy gets it. But the 
technology used to create 
this arcade-hall illusion is a 
real breakthrough. DO 



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mTH/CI* SCIENCE CAN 

ACHIEVE IS A PERFECT 
KNOWLEDGE AND A PER- 
FECT UNDERSTANDING 
OFTHE ACTION OF NATU- 
RAL AND MORAL FORCES:' 
HERMANN LUDWIG FER- 
DINAND VON HELMHOLTZ 



ELECTRONIC 
UNIVERSE 



FORCE FIELDS: 

Computer sports games offer vivid visions of- future competition 

By Gregg Keizer 



No benign street 

Speedball 2 Sets 

you batter 

bad guys. But 

you have 

to use your head 

to play, too. 



■ ou can't see far enough 
^_^J into the future to tell if the 
I point spread's going to 
work for you this weekend, but 
you can see the future of sports— 
if you suspend disbelief. 

Sports may not hold science fic- 
tion in a headlock, but there have 
been some interesting match- 
ups, mostly in the movies. Roller- 
ball and Death Race 2000 are two 
violent extrapolations of the future 
of sports, where mayhem is the 
norm and players come off the 
field on their shields instead of 
coming off the bench. 

Video and computer SF sports 
games follow that trend for the 
most part, upping the action and 
also speculating about the future 
of violence in competition. 

Speedball 2: Brutal Deluxe (Se- 
ga Genesis) from Arena Entertain- 
ment is a perfect example, if not 
a perfect game. The year is 2100. 
Streetball — a rough-and-tumble 




game once played in alleys be- 
tween gangs — has gone legit. 
You take over the cellar-dwelling 
Brutal Deluxe, one of 16 teams in 
the new league, and as its man- 
ager, march It from loser to 
league champion. 

It's a lot like soccer in England, 
only rougher, this Speedball 2: 
Nine players per side streak up 
and down the court as they try to 
throw a steel ball into a goal. You 
control the player closest to the 
ball as he passes, runs, and 
trades punches with the enemy. 
In fact, you've got motivation to 
pummel the other players — you 
score points when you disable an 
opponent. But though the tactical 
play of Speedball 2 satisfies ar- 
cade fans, there's more here 
than just a brute force battle. You 
run the front office, too. 

Speedball plays fast and furi- 
ous — the three-minute games are 
frenetic. Like many video games, 
it demands patience, lots of prac- 
tice, and twitchy reactions. Even 
against the lowly Revolvers, the 
league's most sluggish team, 
you'll have a tough time early on. 
Keep at it, and you'll master up- 
court rushes, time your players' 
punches, and move up in the stand- 
ings. Nothing special here, neither 
in gameplay nor in the science fic- 
tion trappings, but a good Sunday 
diversion nonetheless. 

Slap Nintendo's F-Zero car- 
tridge into the new Super NES 
game deck and find yourself rac- 
ing across nine planets in a mag- 
netically levitated machine, With 
down-to-earth arcade parents 
like Atari's Pole Position race 
game, F-Zero doesn't demand 
rocket scientist brains, just quick 
reflexes. You sprint past other 
cars along 15 twisty tracks, make 
pit stops, and race to finish in the 
top three each time. 

F-Zero is as much a form of 
intergalactic bumper cars as a 
true Grand Prix. Your machine — 



you pick from four, each with a dif- 
ferent performance curve — loses 
power each time it caroms off the 
antigrav guard rails and other 
cars. Let that power drain com- 
pletely and you explode in a nice 
ball of flame. Of course, you can 
shove opponents out of the way 
with greater impunity than any 
NASCAR hot rod. To refuel, you 
drive through the pit stop. No tire 
changes in F-Zero — the slower 
you tool through the pits, the 
more energy you get back. 

If you've put the pedal to the 
floor in almost any video race 
game, you'll find F-Zero familiar. 
There's no ground-breaking game- 
play in F-Zero, but the action's 
still addictive, thanks to the 
bump and grind between cars. 
Once you work your way through 
the game's three levels and 15 
tracks, though, the charm wears 
off fast. You can get some of the 
magic back by switching cars. 
Handling the Golden Fox is 
tough, for instance, since it cor- 
ners horribly. 

The SNES deck may not be the 
Sega-killer that Nintendo hoped, 
but it pumps out surprisingly 
good graphics and is a big step 
up from the blocky original NES. 
F-Zero is a snappy example of 
what this system can do. 

You can't walk away from SF 
sports without at least a look at 
one more game — Maxis' Robo- 
Sport (IBM PC compatibles with 
Windows, Macintosh, Amiga). 

Your team of robots battles it 
out against the computer's or 
against as many as three other 
players' (you can play over a net- 
work of computers) in battles of 
capture-the-flag, treasure hunt, or 
hostage rescue. Program each ro- 
bot's movements and then watch 
a VCR-style replay as they scut- 
tle across two dozen different are- 
nas, guns blazing, 

It beats American Gladiators 
hands down.DQ 



LAST WORD 



SPRINGTIME FOR NUCLEAR WINTER: 

No need to duck and cover; just let a smile be your bomb shelter 



By Stan Sinberg 



Stan Sinberg 

is looking 

tor investors for 

his national 

chain of bomb 

shelters. 



Hey, bad news: Just 
when the threat of nucle- 
ar war with the former So- 
viet Union is diminishing— or 
seems to be — a bunch of scien- 
tists announced that World War III 
probably wouldn't destroy the plan- 
et atter all. That's right. We 
could've had "the big-one" and 
only about half of us would've 
been incinerated. 

Remember that nuclear winter 
scenario that scientists warned us 
about a few years back? The one 
predicting that a nuclear war 
would result in frigid tempera- 
tures, no sunlight, raging winds, 
and the end of the human race? 
Well, while we were building 
homes and raising families, assum- 
ing that was that, many scientists 
have been furiously arguing thai 
nuclear war was getting a bum 
rap. And scientists now agree 
they overestimated the devasta- 
tion. Even Richard P. Turco, the 
physicist at UCLA who coined the 
phrase "nuclear winter;" now ad- 
mits, "The human race wouldn't 
become extinct, but civilization as 
"we know it certainly would!" 

What a ripoff. Here we spent 
years trying to avert the thing, ral- 
lying for nuclear freezes, construct- 
ing bomb shelters, ducking under 
our desks in grade school during 
mock air-raid drills, and enduring 
terrifying movies like The Day Af- 
ter, only to find out that an all-out 
war would have merely destroyed 
civilization. 

Stephen Schneider of the Na- 
tional Center for Atmospheric Re- 
search even disputed the very 
term nuclear winter. "I would call 
it nuclear fall, not winter," he 
said, immediately prompting a not- 
ed clothing manufacturer to 
switch from producing radiation- 
proof down jackets to trendy co- 
balt-resisteni cardigan sweaters. 

For years physicists have 
been heatedly debating these is- 
sues in top-secret Phys_icist Meet- 



ings because only they could un- 
derstand the world-shaking rami- 
fications of nuclear war. How 
wise this decision was made 

clear by this typical exchange at 
a recent Physicist Meeting: 

Pro-Winter Physicist: In conclu- 
sion, a nuclear war would mean 
the destruction of everything we 
hold dear and cherish on the 
face of the earth. 
Anti-Winter Physicist: Up your 
nose with a fire hose! 
PWP: Oh, yeah? 
AWP: Yeah. 

PWP: You want lo step outside? 
AWP: Aren't you afraid you'll 
freeze in the "nuclear winter"? 

As you can see, it was a bitter dis- 
pute, with plenty of good points 
made by both sides. 

Now that a consensus has 
been reached, rumor has it a iot 
of physicists are pretty p.o.'d at 
Carl Sagan. He was one of the 
chief proselytizers of this nuclear 
winter business, and partly be- 
cause of the way he says "billions 
and billions." many intellectuals 
believed everything he said. Op- 
posing physicists had to waste 
valuable time trying to disprove Sa- 
gan's doomsaying when they 
could've moved on to their next 
project: nuking the moon. 

In case you're wondering why 
physicists were intent on proving 
the world could take a nuclear hol- 
ocuast. a little history should 
clear it right up. There actually 
was a time when official U. S. pol- 
icy stated that nuclear war was un- 
thinkable. The point of building a 
nuclear arsenal was to make 
sure we wouldn't have a war. But 
then computers became sophis- 
ticated enough to simulate war, 
and Pentagon heads demanded 
one when they learned that 
NASA officials got to spend all 
day preparing for alien interplan- 
etary attacks by playing Space 



Invaders. Physicists, a profession- 
al group whose contract explicitly 
states that working on anything 
practical is punishable by death, 
jumped aboard. Since then, 
we've had military commandos sit- 
ting around simulating what-if sce- 
narios and flocks of scientists de- 
bating whether nuclear Armaged- 
don would mean the end of life, 
or merely life as we know it. 

There had been speculation 
that with the recent meeting of 
minds, physicists might turn to oth- 
er vita! issues, like getting the 
word indivisible struck from the 
Pledge of Allegiance, since the 
nation is divisible — into trillions of 
atoms. Instead, rising to the chal- 
lenge, they have taken to debat- 
ing new postcivilization questions 
such as:' 

In a nuclear fall, will the 
leaves on the trees still turn col- 
or, and, if so, wilt they contrast suf- 
ficiently with the color humans 
will turn? 

Does "the end of civilization" 
mean a return to the Stone Age 
or only to a time when My Favor- 
ite Martian ruled the airwaves? 

If the soot from the war creates 
a condition of daytime darkness, 
can we offset it by turning the 
clock ahead 12 hours? 

If a nuclear winter does occur, 
will Live with Regis and Kathie 
Lee still seem as urgent? 

Of course, if the Eastern Bloc 
and former Soviet republics 
keep turning from communism, 
the answers to all of these ques- 
tions may never be more than hy- 
pothetical musings. That's why 
we should take whatever steps 
are necessary to promote a re- 
spectable nuclear exchange. Oth- 
erwise, we will have wasted the 
unselfish efforts of some of our 
most brilliant minds who devoted 
prodigious amounts of time and 
energy bravely struggling to 
prove that a little nuclear war isn't 
such a bad thing, after all. DO